Cambridge, University Library, Kk. 3. 18

Present Location
Repository
Shelfmark

Kk. 3. 18

Date
Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

23

Gnuess/Lapidge

22

Summary

The Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum, written in Worcester. The manuscript contains contemporary interlineata and marginalia both in English and Latin which were also added in Worcester.

Additions in Latin by Tremulous Hand are from 1225-50.  

Digital Surrogate

Manuscript Items

 

  1. ItemFols 3r/1-3v/20

     

    • Title (B.9.6.1): Bede, History of the English Church and Nation, Preface

      Incipit(Fol. 3r/1-2) IC BEDA CRISTES ÐEOǷ AND MÆSSE PREOST . SENDE GRETAN | þone leofastan cyning ˥ halettan ceolƿulf.

      Explicit(Fol. 3v/19-20) ˥ þone leornere ic nu eadmodlice bidde ˥ halsige gif he hƿæt ymbe ðis on | oðre ƿisan ge mete oððe ge hyre þæt he me þæt neotƿite.

      Text Language: English

      Other versions of the text:

       

      Date: s. xi2

      HandHemming

      Decoration: The initial letter 'I' in red ink is set in the left margin, and the first line of the text is written in majuscules. The tironian marks on the first page (fol. 3r) are in black ink, touched with red ink. The second paragraph (fol. 3r/14) also begins with an Initial letter 'I' in red set in the left margin: 'Ic cyðe hƿanan me þas spell coman'. The paragraph is numbered '.ii.' in oxidized red.

      Bibliography:

      Miller 1959-63, pp. 2-6

         

    • ItemFols 3v/21-4r/23

       

      • Title (B.9.6.7): Genealogy of West Saxon Kings to Alfred

        Incipit(Fol. 3v/21) Ða ƿæs agangen frā cristes acennednysse .cccc. ˥ xciiii. ƿintra þa cerdic

        Explicit(Fol. 4r/21-23) ˥ þreo hund | ˥ six ˥ hund uygantig ƿintra þæs ðe his cyn ærest ƿest seaxna land on | ƿealum ge eodon :;

        Text Language: English

        Date: s. xi2

        HandHemming

        Decoration: Two-line height 'Ð' and the chapter number '.iii' in purple.

        Bibliography:

        Miller 1959-63, pp. 486-88

           

      • ItemFols 4r/23-8r/26

         

        • Title (B.9.6.2): Bede, History of the English Church and Nation, Headings

          Rubric (initial): (Fol. 4r/23) INCIPIUNT CAPITULA LIBRI PRIMI ·

          Incipit(Fol. 5r/22-23) ·I· Begesetnysse breotene oððe hibernia scotta ealandes onheora | þam ærran bigengum ·

          Explicit(Fol. 8r/25-26) xxi hƿylc se staðol is on ˥ ƿeard nesse angel cynnes þeode ge eac ealre | bredtone;

          Text Language: English

          Other versions of the text:

           

           

          Date: s. xi2

          HandHemming

          Note: The end of the line is often marked with ':;'. Chapter numbers in red are usually given in the left margin, apart from chapter one of each book, which is given after the book heading. Fol. 4v has a unique layout, in which the chapter numbers are given after the chapter headings.

          Decoration: The beginning of each book is marked with a rubric and a large initial letter. Red colour is often oxidized.

          • Beginning of Book 2. Fol. 5r/28-30:

            her endað seo forme boc. ·i· 

            her onginneð seo oðer boc 

            Be forðfore þæs eadigan papan gregorius. :; ii

          • Beginning of Book 3. Fol. 5v/27-28:

            her endað seo oðer boc; And her onginneð seo þridde. ·i· 

            Ðæt ða forman æfter fyligende eadƿines cyning

          • Beginning of Book 4. Fol. 6v/12-14: Ð is in black ink; the inside of the letter is coloured in red.

            Her endað seo þridde boc. ·i· 

            Her onginneð seo feorðe boc 

            Ðæt te forð feroū deus dedit se arce bishop

          • Beginning of Book 5. Fol. 7v/12-13:

            Her endað seo feorðe boc. Her onginneð seo fifte boc ·i· 

            Ðæt æðelƿold scˉe cuðberhtes æfter fyligend

           

          Bibliography:

          Miller 1959-63, pp. 6-24

             

        • ItemFols 4r/23-5r/27 interlinear & margin

           

          • Title: Additions, alterations and glosses: to Book I in the Table of Contents - Bede, History of the English Church and Nation

            Text Language: Latin

            Date: 1225-50

            HandTremulous Hand

            Note: Interlinear Latin glosses.

        • ItemFols 8v/1-99r/10

           

          • Title (B.9.6.3.EM): Bede, History of the English Church and Nation

            Rubric (initial): (Fol. 8v/1-4) GIORIOSISSIMO REGI CEOLǷULFO BEDA FAMULUS XPIˉ ET PRˉB. HISTORIAM | GENTIS ANGLORIUM ECCLESIS TICAM QUAM NUPER EDIDERAM . LIBEN | TISSIME TIBI DESIDERANTI REX ET PRIUS AD LEGENDUM AC PRO | BANDUM TRANS MISI :;

            Incipit(Fol. 8v/5-8) BREOTON IS GARSECGES . EALOND. ÐAT . ǷÆS . | IU GEARA ALBION HATEN IS GESETED BETǷH NORÐDÆLE . AND | ƿest dæle germanie ˥ gallie ˥ his panie þam mæstum dælū europe . | myccle fæce ongegen. (The first two lines are in black ink, touched with red ink.)

            Explicit(Fol. 99r/3-10) Eac þonne ic eadmodlice bidde þæt to eallū ðe þis ylce | stær becyme ures cynnes to rædanne . oððe to gehyranne þæt hi for minum | untrimnessum gemodes gelichoman gelomlice ˥ geornlice þingian mid þa upp | lican arfæstnesse godes ælmihtiges . ˥ ongehƿylcū heora mægðum þas mede | heora edleanes me agife . þæt ic ðe. besyndrigū mægðum oððe þam hyrum stoƿū. | þaðe ic ge mynde ƿyrðe. ˥ þam bigengum þanc ƿyrðe gelyfdon . geornlice | ic tylode to aƿritanne . þæt ic mid eallum ðone ƿæstm arfæstre ðrngunge | ge mete :;

            Text Language: English, with a Latin incipit.

            Other versions of the text:

            • CCCC 41
            • BL, Add. 43703 [Nowell transcript of Otho B. xi]
            • Domitian ix, fol. 11
            • BL, Otho B. xi + Otho B. x, fols 55, 58, 62 + Add. 34652, fol. 2
            • Tanner 10
            • Oxford, CCC 279, pt. II

            Interrogationes Augustini (Miller, 1959-63, pp. 64-88) is placed after Book 3. Referred to as Ca. in Miller 1959-63 and Schipper 1897-99. The text is complete, except for a defect in Book 2; the same defect is in Oxford, CCC 279, pt. II, and it goes back to a common exemplar (See Miller 1959-63, p. 110). A passage in Book 3 is omitted as in Oxford, CCC 279 and Otho B. xi (Miller 1959-63, pp. 210-20).

             

            Date: s. xi2

            HandHemming

            Note: The rubric on fol. 8v is the beginning of Bede's preface in Latin, in rustic capitals. The initial large capital letter 'B' (fol. 8v/5) is three-line height. The initial two lines (lines 5 and 6) are in rustic capitals and filled with red, and the letter size of the first line is larger than that of the second line. Chapter numbers in red are inserted at the beginning of chapters throughout, and the chapter headings, often in oxidized red or brown, are inserted at chapter breaks in fols 47v-53v, probably by Hemming.

            DecorationFol. 8v, where the main text begins, is carefully designed.

            The beginnings of Books 3, 4, 5 and of each 'Interogatio' and 'Respondit' in Interrogationes Augustini, are marked with coloured initial letters (red, dark brown or purple), and their incipits are in rustic capitals and in red, but the beginning of Book 2 is marked only by a coloured initial letter. Chapter beginnings within books are also marked by coloured large initial letters, and chapter numbers are given in red in rustic capitals.

            • Beginning of Book 2. Fol. 17v/15: The book division is marked by a one-line initial capital letter. Some letters in the explicit and incipit are touched in red, but there are no rubrics as such. Purple is oxidized. This book division is not very distinct from chapter divisions.

              oð þisne andƿeardan dæg. her endað seo æreste boc ˥ onginneð seo oðer :; ·I· | 

              Ðyssum tidum þæt is fif ƿinter ˥ syx hund ƿintra æfter þære drihtenlican | 

              menniscnysse.

            • Beginning of Book 3. Fol. 28v/19: 'h' in 'her' in the first line is touched in red.

              fædera ƿeg ƿæs fylgende :; her endað seo æftre bóc :;  TERIUS. | 

              INCIPIT ECCLESIASTICĘ HYSTORIA GENTIS ANGLORUM LIBER | 

              ÐA EADǷINE ON ÐAM GEFEOHTE OF SLÆGEN ǷÆS ; ÐA FENG TO | 

              derarice his fæderan sunu ælrices .

            • Beginning of Interrogationes AugustiniFol. 47v/30: Each chapter beginning is marked with a initial letter and also by rubrics which indicate whether it is interoggatio or responsio.

              ˥ her endað seo þridde bóc. :; INTEROGA | 

              TIO BEATI AGUSTINI EPISCOPI CANTU⁁a RIORUM AECCLESIAE :; | 

              EREST BI BISCEOPUM HU HI MID HEORA GEFERŨ DROHTIAN --

            • Beginning of Book 4. Fol. 53r/22: The Incipit is in red; and the first line of the text ('ÐY GE MYNEGODAN ... ') is written in black and touched with red dots.

              Ðis syndon ˥ sƿare ðæs eadigan papan sēs gregorius to ge þeahdinge | 

              ˥ togefrignysse þæs arƿurðan bisceopes sēs agustinus :; QUARTUS · 

              INCIPIT ECCLESIASTICĘ HYSTORIA GENTIS ANGLORIU LIBER | 

              ÐY GE MYNEGODAN GEARE ÐÆRE FORE SPRECENAN SUNNAN · | 

              asprungennysse .

            • Beginning of Book 5. Fol. 80v/22:

              INCIPIT ĘCCLESIASTICAE HYSTORIĘ GENTS ANGLORUM LIBER QUINTUS . | 

              ÐA æfter fyligde þā drihtnes ƿere cuðberhte onbigange þæs ancor lifes. | 
               

            When the beginning of a sentence coincides with the beginning of a new line, the first letter of the sentence is sometimes offset to the left bounding lines. The 'E' of 'Eft' in fol. 20r is in black but more elaborated, and it has a tail. The upper half of the letter is touched in red. The 'Ð' in fol. 20v is also black, and coloured in red.

            Some letters are touched in red. For example in fols 8v, 17v, 46v, 83v.

             

            Bibliography:

            EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 8vfol. 20vfol. 38v,fol. 84vfol. 85rfol. 87v

            Miller 1959-63, pp. 24-486

               

          • ItemFols 5r-97v interlinear

             

            • Title (B.27.4.3.EM): Additions, alterations and glosses

              Text Language: English

              Date: s. xi2

              HandHemming

              Note: The insertion point is often marked by a caret mark in the shape of a virgule.

          • ItemFols 8v and 67r interlinear

             

            • Title: Additions, alterations and glosses

              Text Language: Latin

              Date: s. xiiiin

              HandPointed hand

              Note: The glosses by this hand were added before the Tremulous Hand added glosses to this manuscript (Franzen 1991, p. 82). Only few words are glossed on fol. 67r, starting with the beginning of chapter xxi (line 14).

              Bibliography:

              EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 8v

              Franzen 1991

              Roberts 2005, C3 and pp. 100-03

                 

            • ItemFols 8v-99r interlinear and margin

               

              • Title: Additions, alterations and glosses

                Text Language: Latin

                Date: 1225-1250

                HandTremulous hand

                Note: Latin glosses mostly interlinear, and some in the margins, occur throughout. Particularly heavily glossed up to fol. 12.

                Bibliography:

                EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 8v

                Franzen 1991

                Roberts 2005, C3 and pp. 100-03

                   

              • ItemFol. 84v/12 left margin

                 

                • Title (B.27.1.1.EM): Directions to readers, Scribbles: Coleman: Title to Book 5, Chapter 7

                  AdditionHV CEADǷALA ǷEST | SÆXENA CINING FOR | LET HIS RICE .' ˥ FOR | TO ROME · ˥ ǷEARS GE | FVLLOD FR Ā SER GIO | PAPA · ˥ EFT · INE CING | dydE ALSǷA ·

                  Text Language: English

                  Date: s. xi2

                  HandColeman

                  Note: The title is in rustic capitals, and is framed by a L-shaped frame with a concave semi-circle in its corner, typically used by Coleman. It is in brown ink, paler than the ink of the main text.

                  Bibliography:

                  EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 84v

                  Miller 1959-63, II, 505

                     

                • ItemFol. 85r/5 right margin

                   

                  • Title (B.27.1.2.EM): Directions to readers, Scribbles: Coleman: Title to Book 5, Chapter 8

                    AdditionHV THEODORE ARCE | BISHOP FORS FERDE mid · ˥ BRI | ǷALD FENG TO ÞĀ ICA

                    Text Language: English

                    Date: s. xi2

                    HandColeman

                    Note: The title is in rustic capitals, and is framed by a L-shaped frame with a concave semi-circle in its corner, typically used by Coleman. It is in brown ink, paler than the ink of the main text.

                    Bibliography:

                    EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 85r

                    Miller 1959-63, II, 508

                       

                  • ItemFol. 87v/22 interlinear

                     

                    • Title (B.27.1.3.EM): Directions to readers, Scribbles: Coleman: Note to Book 5, Chapter 13

                      Addition: Sumes goodes mannes gesihðe . be heofene r [ice]  | ˥ be helle ƿite · ræd hit · ˥ ƿell understond. ˥ þ [u]  | bist þe betere.

                      Text Language: English

                      Date: s. xi2

                      HandColeman

                      Note: The note is in minuscule, framed by a L-shaped frame with a concave semi-circle in its corner, typically used by Coleman, and added interlinearly at a chapter division. The name of the scribe appears in the left margin (see the next item). It is in very dark black ink.

                      Bibliography:

                      EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 87v

                      Miller 1959-63, II, 532

                         

                    • ItemFol. 87v/22 left margin

                       

                      • Title (B.27.1.4.EM): Directions to readers, Scribbles: Coleman: A signature by Coleman

                        Addition: [cplfm] bn

                        Text Language: English

                        Date: s. xi2

                        HandColeman

                        Note: The name of the scribe, Coleman, appears in the left margin. He has contrived a slightly disguised form of his name by substituting consonants for the vowels (Ker, 'Coleman', 1949, p. 29). There is also a mark in the left margin which consists of the top horizontal bar and the vertical bar starting from the left end of the horizontal bar. It is in very dark black ink.

                        Bibliography:

                        EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 87v

                        Johnson and Rudolf 2010

                        Ker, 'Coleman', 1949

                        McIntyre 1978

                        Stoneman 1987

                        Thomson and Gullick 2001

                           

                      • ItemFols 55r-91r interlinear

                         

                        • Title (B.27.1.5.EM): Directions to readers, Scribbles: Coleman

                          Addition:

                          • Fol. 55r/13-14: Additions and overwritten words are in darker black ink than the main hand (here represented in bold). The shape of 'ð' in 'forð' with a crossbar only to the right suggests that it was by Coleman. Also note that 'r' is much shorter than that by the main scribe, and the descender of 'f' is used as the insertion point.

                            On þa tid ƿæs on myrcna mægðe ƿulfhere cyning þa [.]  ⁁ ƿæs forð  fere[dum?]  d  germanne myrcna | 

                            bisceop[e?]  þa   bæd [he?]  se cing   theodory bisceop þæt he him ˥ his leodum bisceop funde.

                          • Fol. 55r/18-19: These additions are physically erased by a later hand, and are now unreadable. The descender of the first letter of the first addition seems to have been used as the insertion mark. These may be by Coleman, as they appear on the page which was annotated by him.

                            sƿa xxx  osƿies rice ƿæs. þæs | 

                            cyninges · ˥ forðón þeaƿ ƿæs . ðam ylcan arƿurð an xxxxxxx  ·ƀ· þæt he þæt ƿeorc ðæs halgan | 
                             

                          • Fol. 55v/9-10: The æ with e which is the same height as aand s with a head which finishes with a tick to the left suggest that 'þæs' may be by Coleman rather than the main scribe. The descender of þ is used as an insertion point. The insertion points of 'g' in Caroline form and 'ge' in Insular form are also marked with the descenders of g. These additions are in scratchy black ink.

                            & tempus colli g  endi :; þæt tid ƿære stanas to sendanne ˥ tid to somni | 

                            enne. þa com mycel ƿal ˥ monn cƿyld godcundlice ge   sended · þæt ðurh þæs  lichoman | 

                            deað þalifigendan stanas þære cyricean of

                          • Fol. 88v/9: Shape of ð and a suggests that this was by Coleman. It is in scratchy brown ink.

                            seaðes ; ða  geseah ic ˥

                          • Fol. 88v/11 right margin: Shapes of æ and long s suggest that this may be by Coleman. In pale brown ink.

                            ƿæron eft áslidene on neoƿolnesse ˥ on grund þæs py [ttes

                          • Fol. 88v/13: Mid þy ic ða longe þær forht stod · ˥ afæred .  ˥ me ƿæs uncuð
                          • Fol. 88v/24: ˥ ful fyr , eade  of heora muðe
                          • Fol. 89v/1ða  Andsƿarede ic him ·
                          • Fol. 89v/24: Forðon þe ic lust fulliende þære stoƿe sƿetnesse ƿæs  ˥ ƿlite ðeic þær geseah ·
                          • Fol. 90v/1: nalæs his drohtnunge ˥ his lif monegū mannū ne eachiˉ syl fū bricsade. + freomede
                          • Fol. 90v/23: ⁁ nu to  fore minū eagū hæbbe .
                          • Fol. 91r/9:

                            Ac on foð hine ˥ on þa | 

                            heapunge eoƿre niðeruinge gelædað · þy cƿide hi instæpe ⁁ + mid þissū ƿordū .ʹ hi  frā minre gesihðe geƿiton ·

                           

                          Text Language: English

                          Date: s. xi2

                          HandColeman: some certainly and some probably by him.

                          Note: It is not always possible to be absolutely certain about the attribution of the hand, particularly when additions are as short as few letters or a word. These additions and alterations are categorized as Coleman's on palaeographical grounds and also by examining the colour of the ink. The last three examples (fols 90v/1, 90v/23, 91r/9) are in a very irregular hand, and they may not be by Coleman, while he might have been responsible for other additions not listed here. Coleman may be also responsible for adding some cross-shaped marks and some frames. See Johnson and Rudolf's discussion on the small superscript cross in Hatton 113 and Hatton 114, and also 'a typical non-circled frame' in Otho C. i, and compare them with marks in Kk. 3. 18, for example, the cross marks in fol. 91r/23-24; or the frame in fol. 89v/30. Frames emphasized in various ways on fols 7r, 28v, 34r, 41r, 64r, 89v.

                          Bibliography:

                          Johnson and Rudolf 2010

                          Miller 1959-63, II, p. 532

                          Schipper 1897-99, p. 612

                          Scragg, Rumble, and Powell, C11 Database Project

                             

                        • ItemFols 12r-93v interlinear and margin

                           

                          • Title (B.27.4.4.EM): Additions, alterations and glosses

                            Addition: Listed here are only some selected examples of additions, glosses and alterations by this scribe. Other possible additions by this scribe include 'ge' in fols 12r/23, 23r/2, 23r/2, 57v/19, 67r/16, 70v/08, 71r/6, 73r/14, 87v/4, 87v/11; 'þæes' in fol. 52r/22, 'þa' in fol. 52r/23, 'geth' in fol. 75v/14, 'ges' in fol. 93v/18, and so on.

                            • Fol. 28r/1: cyninga heretogena
                            • Fol. 30v/15: on fengon ⁁ þā gerynd  cristes
                            • Fol. 35v/2: þa hiƿan gebroðrā
                            • Fol. 38v/3-6: þa hlihte he sona ˥ het þam ðear | fan þæt hors syllan mid þā cynelican gebæcum rædum  þe hi onstodon · forðon + + he ƿæs sƿiðe mild heort | ˥ þearfena bigenga sƿa | sƿa fæder earmra ; Ƿa |   þe þis ƿæs þam cyninge sæd cƿˉ he to þā ·ƀ· þa hi ƿæron to heora sƿæsendū ⁁ gereordum  | gongende · (the cross mark is used to indicate the insertion point.)
                            • Fol. 42v/7: spellican lare ⁁ georne  ƿið fealh

                             

                            Text Language: English

                            Date: s. xi2

                            Hand5-shaped-'g' scribe

                            Bibliography:

                            EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 38v

                               

                          • ItemFols 7r-92v interlinear and margin

                             

                            • Title (B.27.4.5.EM): Additions, alterations and glosses

                              Addition:

                              • Fol. 20v/26: þæt he ·xxvi· six ˥ twentig  ƿintra
                              • Fol. 30r/14: stoƿe ˥ biscopseld setl  on lindesfearon
                              • Fol. 72r/2: maþonne ·xxx· þrittig  ƿintra
                              • Fol. 84v/7: Ƿunode þes godes ƿer in biscop | hade ·xxxiii· þreo ˥ þrittig  ƿintra ˥ sƿa ƿæs astigende
                              • Fol. 92v/22: to rome com to þā halgum  stoƿū sceare onfeng ·

                               

                              Text Language: English

                              Date: s. xi2

                              HandStraight 5-shaped 'g' Scribe

                              Note: Some other glosses and additions might be also by this scribe: for example, fols 7r/24, 58v/9, 63r/2.

                              Bibliography:

                              EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 20v fol. 84v

                                 

                            • ItemFols 9r-99r

                               

                              • Title: Running Titles

                                Text Language: Latin

                                Date: s. xi2

                                HandRunning Title

                                Note: Book numbers in rustic capitals are given as the running title at the head of the page throughout. Compared to the carefully arranged layout of the main text, the book numbers are written rather irregularly. Book 1, for example, is mostly written as 'LIBER PRIMUS' on one page, but sometimes 'LIBER ·I·' (fol. 11v), and sometimes 'LIBER' on the verso and 'PRIMUS' on the recto (fols 14v-15r). The letters are not in a straight line. Chapter numbers are given in red ink at the end of the final line of the previous chapter. Although Rudolf 2006 suggests that the Interrogationes Augustinni et responsiones Gregorii are highlighted by 'a separate running title', the palaeographical information suggests that the titles are by the same hand. The chapter headings inserted at chapter breaks in fols 48r-53v are also by the same hand.

                                Bibliography:

                                EM Project facsimile, CUL Kk.3.18, fol. 20vfol. 38vfol. 84v,fol. 85rfol. 87v

                                Rudolf 2006


                              Object Description

                              Form

                              Form: Codex

                              Support: Parchment. ii + 97 + iii. The pastedowns are parchment flyleaves, s. xvi.

                              Extent:

                              • ca. 320 mm x ca. 225 mm (dimensions of - size of leaves)
                              • ca. 268 mm x ca. 158 mm (dimensions of - size of written space)

                              Foliation and/or Pagination:

                              • Foliated in pencil, [ii] + 1-102.
                              • Fols 3-99 were formerly paginated on rectos in red pencil, 1-193.

                              Collation:

                              • Quires:
                                • Fols i and ii: pastedown from old binding
                                • Fols 1 and 2 are parchment flyleaves, s. xvi.
                                • Fols 3-99: 18 (3-10; fols 5 and 8 are singletons), 28 (11-18), 38 (19-26), 48 (27-34), 58 (35-42), 68 (43-50), 78 (51-58), 88 (59-66), 98 (67-74; fols 69 and 72 are singletons), 108 (75-82), 118 (83-90), 128+1 (91-99; fol. 98 is a singleton).
                                • Fols 100-02 are old flyleaves; the current pastedown is from the previous binding.
                              • Signatures: In a later hand:
                                • aj (fol. 3r),
                                • bj (fol. 11r), + (fol. 15r),
                                • cj (fol. 19r), + (fol. 23r),
                                • dj (fol. 27r), + (fol. 31r),
                                • ej (fol. 35r), + (fol. 39r),
                                • fj (fol. 43r), + (fol. 47r),
                                • gj (fol. 51r), + (fol. 55r), + (fol. 63r), + (7fol. 1r),
                                • kj (fol. 75r), + (fol. 79r), + (fol. 87r),
                                • mj (fol. 91r), + (fol. 95r), m vij *(fol. 98r),
                                • 2 (fol. 100r)

                              Condition:

                              Holes in parchment: fols 45, 64, 88, 94, 95, 99. Some holes were there before the text was copied (fol. 95r).

                              Layout description:

                                 

                                  Layout is irregular. The marks of pricking and ruling are visible in some folios. Ruled mostly for 30 long lines, and 29 on fols 3 and 10. Two ruling patterns: LO09 and LO11.


                                  Hand Description

                                   

                                  • Number of hands: at least 7
                                  • Summary: The whole of the main text was copied by a single hand, probably HemmingKer 1957 says that there are 'some contemporary corrections, alterations and glosses' (p. 37). These additional hands are analysed and categorised wherever possible with the very limited information available, i.e., from the glosses and additions. Three contemporary hands who added English text to this manuscript are identified and described, but there are possibly more.
                                  • Methods of Alteration: Corrections and alterations appear consistently from the beginning to the end. The methods of deletion are physical erasure of letters by scratching off the surface of the parchment and expunction marks. The methods of addition are overwriting letters on top of erasures, interlinear additions with or without a caret mark, and additions in the margin. Some of these are definitely by the main scribe, some definitely by later hands, and some are not possible to attribute to a specific hand.
                                  • Hand: Hemming
                                    • Scope: Major
                                    • Scribe: Hemming
                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                    • Date: s. xi2
                                    • Description: This scribe copied the whole of the main text (fols 3-99.PrefaceGenealogyTable of Contents and History). Ker identifies this hand as probably Hemming, monk of Worcester (1948, pp. 57 and 72; 1957, p. lvi), and describes it as 'a regular, stiff, and rather ugly hand which occurs also in five other Worcester manuscripts and in Harley Charter 83'. (Ker 1957, Item 23). Ker's observation that this hand is 'ugly' is subjective, as Miller 1890-98 describes it as 'a neat hand' (p. xx). The script is regular and relatively round, with a broad horizontal spread.

                                      Rustic capitals for the incipit (fol. 8v) and book headings. Chapter numbers given throughout the text are probably by Hemming too. The capitals have a style, and they are written in calligraphic script.

                                      The scribe sometimes wrote the last few words of the chapter to the right end of the first line of the next chapter in order to avoid a widow. The first line of the new chapter and the last few words from the previous chapter are often marked with a dividing line, probably by later hands, and some of them were possibly marked by Coleman. The dividing lines are sometimes coloured or emphasised further.

                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                    • Ker 1957 says that a is 'nearly Caroline', but Caroline a with a short and straight loop at the top occurs only occasionally. a is mostly insular with a single compartment. It is slightly rounded and triangular at the top.
                                    • æ 'with regular high e', as Ker 1957 says.
                                    • d is very low with a little flick which often creates a slight concave.
                                    • Insular e is often horned; long tongue in final position.
                                    • ę is occasionally used.
                                    • The descender of f curves slightly to the left at the end; the tongue of f is longer than the shoulder and curves up very slightly at the end.
                                    • The headstroke of insular g - when there is one - 'is often slightly concave', as Ker 1957 says. The downstroke of the letter is sometimes connected to the headstroke at the very left end, and shapes a round top. The bottom lobe is always closed.
                                    • Insular h sometimes has a distinct serif to the right, sometimes a small foot to the right. The ascender is wedged.
                                    • minims sometimes have distinct serifs to the right, and sometimes small and flat feet.
                                    • p has a round lobe, and its descender finishes with a straight line serif which turns up to the right.
                                    • r is insular form with a straight descender and a straight right foot with a serif to the right.
                                    • Three kinds of s: insular s with a straight descender and a small head, the right end of the head curving downward; Caroline long swith a head which curves gently (often finishing without curving downwards) and a descender curving to the left, the head often joining the descender half way down; the long s at the end of a word, sometimes with a distinct curly head. The double ss are mostly spelled with two long ss.
                                    • t has a round back, and 'the headstroke of t is often slightly concave', as Ker 1957 notes.
                                    • The ascender of þ is often wedged, sometimes forming a serif to the left at the top. The descender is shorter than the ascender, and straight.
                                    • ð has a round lobe, and its ascender goes up to the left at an angle of 45 degrees, extending much further than the left end of the lobe. The top of the ascender is straight, and the crossbar has a small serif pointing upwards at the left end and downwards at the right end.
                                    • y is dotted. The descender is straight at an angle of 45 degrees, and sometimes long with a small flick to the right.
                                    • ƿ often has a triangular lobe with a pointed corner at the top right, but the shape of the lobe is sometimes round and elongated. The lobe meets the stem below the writing line. The descender is without a serif,and sometimes curves slightly to the left and tapers.
                                    • ascenders are longer than descenders, except on d. Ascenders of bh and l often have small wedges at the top.
                                    • descenders are relatively short and straight.
                                    • accents are sometimes found on vowels.
                                    • A used in the Incipit and book headings is usually triangular and has a bottom line, whereas capital A within the text is open at the bottom. A tall Caroline a is also used within the text.
                                    • Æ within the text uses an open rustic A, and the head of e is very small.
                                    • The bottom horizontal line of rustic E is usually the shortest. The top horizontal line often has a small downward serif to the left at its end, and the middle horizontal line is sometimes wavy and the longest of the three. A tall Caroline e with a tongue to the right is used as a capital letter within the text.
                                    • Rustic F has a distinct diagonal head, while the back and the horizontal bar are very short. The right end of the head is higher than other letters. The capital letter F within the text, is tall and balanced, and it has serifs at the right ends of two horizontal lines which are approximately the same length; it also has a foot.
                                    • H in the Incipit is a Caroline h in a larger size.
                                    • The ascender of L in the Incipit is higher than other letters, while the horizontal bottom line is very short.
                                    • The V-shaped part of M in both the Incipit and the main text is on the writing line, and the final diagonal stroke curves inward and tapers upwards at the end. In the main text, uncial M is also used.
                                    • The final stroke of N in the Incipit extends below the writing line and tapers to the left. The diagonal stroke in the middle is sometimes at less than 15 degrees. The main text has two kinds of N: the letter with the long final stroke, and a balanced letter with distinct serifs at the top and bottom of the left descender and right descender with a split top.
                                    • S in the Incipit and book headings is higher than other letters and its top lobe is larger than the bottom one.
                                    • The head of T in the Incipit and book headings is decorative. It is wavy and its right end goes upwards and sometimes curves back to the left.
                                    • Abbreviations:
                                    • ˥ with straight head and straight downstroke; & is occasionally used.
                                    • macrons often have an upward serif at the left end and a downward serif at the right end.
                                    • 'þæt' with a þ and a cross-bar.
                                    • ƀ for 'bisscop'.
                                    • Punctuation: Punctuation at the end of a chapter is three dots forming a triangle above a comma. The text is mainly punctuated by a period or a punctus above the writing line.
                                    • Ligatures: st ligature is occasionally used.
                                    • Correcting technique: The main hand adds alterations and glosses interlinearly throughout. Approximately 180 additions are identified as being by the main scribe, but sometimes it is difficult to be certain, particularly when the addition is a single letter. The descender is sometimes characteristically shorter when the word is added interlinearly: for example, 'r' and 'ƿ' (fol. 23r/22); 'r' (fol. 27v/01); 's' (fol. 43v/30); '˥' and 'r' (fol. 86r/13), and so on.

                                      A comma-shaped insertion point is often used. The descender of superscript g is used as insertion mark when g is ommitted from the word. (fols 57v/07, 55v/10, 55v/09).

                                      Most of these additions by the main scribe are short, i.e., a single letter, a single word, or a few words. The only exception is at fol. 63v/15, where the scribe adds the whole passage, which had been omitted, in the left margin vertically: '˥ sƿa hƿyder ymb sƿa he beden ƿæs ferde ˥ cyric sang lærde'. The addition is enclosed with an anchor mark and a cross at the beginning and the end, and the insertion point in the text is also marked by the anchor and a cross. The cross mark is similar to those used by Coleman.

                                      There is often a caret mark in the shape of a comma. Sometimes original letters or words are cancelled by expunction marks (for example, fol. 25v/13).

                                    • Other manuscripts:
                                      • CCCC 146, pp. iii, iv, 1-60, 319-30 (Some additions by this scribe. This manuscript came to Worcester from Winchester.)
                                      • CCCC 391, the portiforium of Wulfstan, pp. 601-03, 611-12 (This scribe also wrote Latin texts on pp. 597-612. This scribe comfortably writes both in Old English and Latin.)
                                      • Tiberius A. xiii, fols 119-25 and some additions
                                      • Harley Charter 83. A. 3
                                      • Hatton 114, fol. 246v
                                      • Junius 121, fols 2v-3 and parts of 'An Easter Day Homily', fols 148v-54v
                                  • Hand: 5-shaped g
                                    • Scope: Minor
                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                    • Description: This hand appears interlinearly and in margins in fols 14r-93v, and it resembles that of Hemming who copied the main text. Characteristics of this hand which might help to distinguish it from Hemming are listed below.
                                    • Date: s. xi2
                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                    • g is in the shape of '5', and it leans slightly to the right.
                                    • The vertical bar of ð does not cross the ascender, and it has an downward serif at the right end.
                                    • þ has very short descender.
                                    • Correcting technique: Words are sometimes inserted with comma-shaped caret marks. There is also an addition to the margin.
                                  • Hand: straight 5-shaped-'g'
                                    • Scope: Minor
                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                    • Description: Some interlinear additions which contain a '5'-shaped 'g' were probably by a different hand from the one described above. Here again, only the characteristics of this hand which help distinguish it from Hemming are listed below.
                                    • Date: s. xi2
                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                    • g in the shape of '5' without slanting. It is vertical.
                                    • The feet of h do not have serifs.
                                    • Caroline s is short, and its descender finishes on the writing line.
                                    • t often has a straight back.
                                    • Abbreviations: The descender of ˥ extends below the writing line.
                                  • Hand: Coleman
                                    • Scope: Minor
                                    • Scribe: Coleman
                                    • Script: Rustic Capitals, and English Vernacular Minuscle with influence of Caroline forms
                                    • Description: Coleman (d. 1113), chancellor and then chaplain of bishop Wulfstan, and also the author of the lost Life of Bishop Wulfstanin Old English, used by William of Malmesbury in writing his LatinVita Wulfstani. In fol. 87va note to Book 5, Chapter 13 is signed as '[cplf]mbn'. The titles to Book 5, Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 in rustic capitals are added in the margins of fols 84v and 85r by ColemanSome interlinear additions are also by this scribe.
                                    • Date: s. xi2
                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                    • a is insular with a single compartment. It is triangular at the top, and the top is slightly rounded.
                                    • a and e are the same height in the combination æ.
                                    • d has a round back, and the end of d sometimes flicks back to the right. The ascender is at 45º.
                                    • e is round and has a tongue.
                                    • f is insular, with the tongue is slightly longer than the head.
                                    • g is insular form. The top is straight, and the corners of the 'c' shape on the top are at 90º. The bottom loop is an oval shape and closed.
                                    • The feet of h are short. The left foot does not have a serif, while the right foot has a serif to the right. The head of the arch is pointed and its highest point is on the top of the right foot. The ascender has an wedge at the top.
                                    • l has a wedge at the top and a serif to the right at the bottom.
                                    • r is insular form.
                                    • The foot of Caroline s is short and it extends only slightly beyond the writing line.
                                    • t has a round back and its head sometimes extends to the right.
                                    • ð has a small lobe and the crossbar has a downward serif at the right end only.
                                    • The descender of þ is very short and the lobe is triangular.
                                    • A is triangular with a small head at 45º.
                                    • The middle horizontal line of E is usually the shortest one. The top horizontal line often has a small downward serif to the left at its end.
                                    • Rustic F has a distinct and wavy diagonal head, while the back and the horizontal cross bar are very short. The right end of the head is higher than other letters. It has a distinct foot.
                                    • Two types of H: a Caroline h with a distinct right foot, in a larger size; and a Rustic H with wedged ascenders and feet.
                                    • The ascender of L is wedged and higher than other letters, while the horizontal bottom line is short and wavy.
                                    • The final stroke of N extends below the writing line and tapers to the left.
                                    • The top of S in the Incipit and book headings is higher than other letters, and its top lobe is larger than the bottom one.
                                    • The head of T is decorative. It is wavy and its right end goes upwards.
                                    • V has a broad angle.
                                    • This scribe often uses the descender of a letter as insertion point (fol. 89v/24).
                                    • Abbreviations: The descender of ˥ extends below the writing line.
                                    • Punctuation: · is used.
                                    • Correcting technique:
                                      • An extended descender is sometimes used as an insertion point.
                                      • A comma-shaped caret mark is also used.
                                      • The scribe sometimes physically erases the main text to correct it.
                                      • Additions in the margins are usually enclosed by a L-shaped frame with a concave semi-circle in its corner.
                                      • The insertion point in the text and the addition in the margin are both marked by an abbreviated 'vel' which is in the shape of a cross. These marks may have been used for different purposes as well, as they also appear within the main text without any additions (91r/23-24).
                                    • Language: Coleman uses double consonants.
                                    • Other manuscripts:
                                  • Hand: a pointed hand
                                    • Scope: Minor
                                    • Script: Caroline minuscule
                                    • Description: Latin glosses in a neat, small and pointed hand of s. xiiiinare on fols 8v and 67r. They are in thin and pale brown ink. Lines were specifically ruled in hardpoint for these glosses.
                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                    • a is Caroline.
                                    • d has a round back, with a tall ascender.
                                    • f is short and finishes on the line.
                                    • Caroline g with a round lobe on the top which has a horizontal tongue from the upper right. The loop starts from the bottom right corner, curves to the right, draws a straight slanting line to the left, and finishes with an downward serif.
                                    • The head of long s is a straight horizontal line and its vertical line is on the writing line.
                                    • Abbreviations: Uses ˥ with and without a crossing bar, as well as &.
                                  • Hand: Running Titles
                                    • Scope: Minor
                                    • Script: Rustic Capitals
                                    • Description: Running Titles in Latin are in very irregular rustic capitals.
                                    • The head of B is sometimes open and the bottom is sometimes open too.
                                    • The top horizontal line often has a small downward serif to the left at its end and the middle horizontal line sometimes crosses the vertical line.
                                  Decoration Description

                                  Large initials; textual divisions: Book and chapter divisions are mostly marked with one-line (sometimes two-line) large initials throughout. The beginning of each book is in metallic red, and chapters begin with colour initials in red or purple. About half of the width of a letter is in the margin, and half is indented within the main text. The very beginning of the main text is marked with a three-line capital letter 'B' (fol. 20v). For the layout of fol. 8v, see also 5. Item (4) above. The final strokes of some of the large capitals have simple flourishes : 'F' (fol. 60r), 'Ƿ' (fol. 60v), 'M (fol. 61v), 'Ƿ' (fol. 79r), and so on. Some letters have more elaborate flourishes: 'O' (fol. 32r) and 'Ę' (fol. 47v). Some letters are written in black, and coloured with red: 'Ð' (fol. 6v), 'Ð' (fol. 9v), 'Ę' (fol. 20r), 'Ð' (fol. 20v).

                                    Capital letters; beginning of sentences: When the beginning of a sentence coincides with the beginning of a line, the capital letter is emphasised and set in the left bounding lines: 'S' (fol. 23r), 'Æ' (fol. 29r), 'N' and 'Ð' (fol. 29v), 'Ð' (fol. 31v), F (fol. 32r), F (fol. 32v), S (fol. 33r), Ð (fol. 35r) Ð (fol. 35r), Ð (fol. 36v), C (fol. 36v) and so on. Some of these are coloured; some are in black and touched in red. Some capital letters in the middle of the text are occasionally touched in red too: 'Ð' (fol. 28r), 'Ð' (fol. 34r), 'S' (fol. 46v), 'S' (fol. 59v), and several letters in fol. 83v are emphasized.

                                    Additions
                                    • Two kinds of paragraph marks are added in the margin by a later hand. The first one consists of lines and looks like a combination of a letter 'E' and a long vertical line which slants to the left at the bottom end (fols 27v, 35r, 98r, etc). The other is in a shape of usual paragraph mark, but the top horizontal line ends with a flourish which curls upward, and the vertical line extends downwards and ends with a flourish which curls upward to the left (fols 38v, 72r, 83v, etc). The former was probably added first, as in fol. 90r the former is physically erased and the latter is added on top.
                                    • Robert Talbot's notes.
                                    • In fol. 19v, left margin, there is a note drawing attention to Jewel's use of the OE Bede in his Defense of the Apologie (ed. 1571, p. 520).
                                    • References to other versions are added throughout the manuscript (fols 21r, 28r, 30v, 41r, etc).
                                    • As Miller 1959-63 says, on iv, there is a couplet in red which is repeated on fol. 99v: 'Historicus quondam fecit me Beda latinum, | Ælfred rex Saxo transtulit ille pius.'
                                    • On the first page 'Ælfred' is altered roughly into 'Ælured'.
                                    Binding Description

                                    Binding of s. xviii. There are 3 blank parchments at the beginning and 4 at the end, the first and last of all being pasted down in the binding. Marks on the endleaves show that an older binding had four bosses on each cover. Ker 1957 makes a reference to the s. xvi binding of CUL Ii. 2. 4, which had four bosses on each cover, now missing. The volume is now kept in a green box with red label and gold lettering.

                                    Parchment flyleaves, s. xvi.


                                    Additional Information

                                    Administration Information

                                    Manuscript described by Takako Kato with the assistance of Hollie Morgan (2010; 2013). Thanks are due to Winfried Rudolf for his advice on the running titles and on Coleman.

                                    Surrogates

                                    Digital surrogate: https://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-KK-00003-00018/1 (accessed 18 July 2018)

                                    EM Project facsimile

                                    Roberts, Jane, Guide to Scripts Used in English Writings up to 1500 (London: British Library, 2005), C3, pl. 22  

                                    A black and white microfilm of is available in the Cambridge University Library


                                    History

                                    Origin
                                    • Origin:

                                      Worcester. Written at Worcester by Hemming who also copied part of five other manuscripts. Glosses by Tremulous Hand in s. xiii2/4 in Worcester.

                                    • Provenance:

                                      There is an inscription, 'Mathhæus Cantiar, 1574', at the head of fol. 3r.

                                    • Acquisition:

                                      No. 3 in the list of manuscripts given by Archbishop Parker to Cambridge University in 1574. Old Cambridge marks are 'D. δ. 6' and '241'.

                                    Provenance

                                    Worcester

                                    Bibliography

                                    A Catalogue of the Manuscripts Preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge, 5 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1856-57; München: Kraus Reprint, 1980)

                                    Davis, R. H. C., 'Bede after Bede', in Studies in Medieval History for R. Allen Brown, ed. by C. Harper-Bill, C. J. Holdsworth and J. L. Nelson (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1989), pp. 103-13

                                    Franzen, Christine, The Tremulous Hand of Worcester: A Study of Old English in the Thirteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991)

                                    Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieavl and Renaissance Studies, 2001), item 22

                                    Graham, Timothy, 'Robert Talbot's "Old Saxonice Bede": Cambridge University Library MS Kk. 3. 18 and the "Alphabetum Norwagicum" of British Library, Cotton MS Domitian A. IX', in Books and Collectors 1200-1700, ed. by James C. Carley and Colin G. C. Tite (London: The British Library, 1997), pp. 295-316

                                    Gransden, Antonia, 'Bede's Reputation as an Historian in Medieval England', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 32.4 (1981), 397-425

                                    Greatrex, Joan, Biographical Register of the English Cathedral Priories of the Province of Canterbury, c.1066-1540 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999)

                                    Johnson, David F., and Winfried Rudolf, 'More Notes by Coleman', Medium Ævum, 79 (2010), 1-13

                                    Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 23

                                    ---, 'The Date of the "Tremulous" Worcester Hand', Leeds Studies in English, 6 (1937), 28-29

                                    ---, 'Hemming's Cartulary: A Description of the Two Worcester Cartularies in Cotton Tiberius A. xiii', in Studies in Medieval History Presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke, ed. by R. W. Hunt, W. A. Pantin and R.W. Southern (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1948), pp. 49-75

                                    ---, 'Old English Notes Signed "Coleman"', Medium Ævum, 18 (1949), 27-30

                                    Laing, Margaret, Catalogue of Sources for a Linguistic Atlas of Early Medieval English (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1993)

                                    McIntyre, E. A., 'Early Twelfth Century Worcester Cathedral Priory, with special reference to the manuscripts written there' (unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford, 1978)

                                    Miller, T., ed., The Old English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of The English People, EETS, OS 95, 96, 110, 111, 4 pts, 2 vols (1890-98; London: Oxford University Press, 1959-63)

                                    Roberts, Jane, Guide to Scripts Used in English Writings up to 1500 (London: British Library, 2005)

                                    Rudolf, Winfried, 'Running Titles in Late Old English Manuscripts from Worcester', a paper presented at International Medieval Congress (Leeds, 2006)

                                    Schipper, J., ed., König Alfreds Übersetzung von Bedas Kirchengeschichte(Leipzig: Wigand, 1897-99 )

                                    Scragg, Donald, Alexander Rumble, and Kathryn Powell, C11 Database Project(Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, http://www.arts.manchester.ac.uk/mancass/c11database/; 2009)

                                    Stoneman, W., 'Another Old English Note Signed "Coleman"', Medium Ævum, 56 (1987), 78-82

                                    Thomson, Rodney Malcolm, and Michael Gullick, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Medieval Manuscripts in Worcester Cathedral Library (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Published on behalf of the Dean and Chapter of Worcester Cathedral by Brewer, 2001)

                                    Wanley, H., Librorum Veterum Septentrionalium Catalogus (1705)

                                    Whelock, A., ed., Bede, Historiæ ecclesiasticæ gentis Anglorum libri V(Cantabrigiae: Excudebat Rogerus Daniel, 1643)

                                      Zupitza, Julius, 'Drei alte Excerpte aus Älfreds Beda', ZfdA, 30 (1886), 185-86