London, British Library, Cotton Nero E. i, part 2, fols 181-84

Present Location
Repository
Collection
Shelfmark

Nero E. i, part 2, fols 181-84

Date
Medieval Provenance

General Information

Gnuess/Lapidge

344.5, 345

Summary

Four leaves of records containing charters of the kings of Mercia, bishops of Worcester and others. On fol. 184v, a list of Worcester Cathedral estates and their royal donors was added. They were originally copied into Worcester Cathedral's Bible under the direction of Bishop Wulfstan II. Now part (fols 181-84) of a two-volume large composite manuscript, containing legendaries in Latin (s. xi2-xiii) and a Law Code in Old English (s. x/xi) (British Library Catalogue). The Latin legendaries have glosses and directions to a reader in Old English written in s. xi and xi2 (See CCCC 9 + BL Cotton Nero. E. i, part 1 and part 2, fols 1-180, 87 and 88).

A further part of the same cartulary was discovered in 1911, and now is BL Add. 46204. According to Ker 1948, the original order of leaves were: Nero E. i, pt. 2, fol. 182; Add. 46204, full leaf; Nero, fols 183, 184, 181; Add. a fragment. Also known as The St. Oswald CartularyThe Nero-Middleton Cartulary, or The St. Wulfstan Cartulary (See Herold 2004). Textually it contains the same collection of documents as Tiberius A. xiii, but in an abbreviated version (Ker 1948, p. 66). Gneuss 2001 dates the manuscript to s. xiex.

Digital Surrogate

Manuscript Items
  1. Itemfol. 182r/col. 1

    Incipit (Latin): Ego kinsig . episcopus

    Explicit (Latin): EGO ÆLFHERE MINISTER

    Text Language: Latin

    Note: Sawyer 428, dated 930

    Bibliography:

    Herold 2004

       

    • Itemfol. 182r/col. 1

      Incipit (Latin): BREODVN CVNCTA LABILIS VITE SVBSISTENTIA MOMENTANEA

      Explicit (Latin): Signum eadboldi ducis

      Text Language: Latin

      Note: Sawyer 117, dated 780

      Bibliography:

      Herold 2004

         

      • Itemfol. 182r/cols 1-2

         

        • Title (B.15.3.3): Charters: Bishop's Charters: Bishop Wærferth to Æthelred and Æthelflæd Sawyer 1280

          Incipit (Latin): Bisceop omnibus namque sapientibus notum ac manifestum constat.

          Explicit: Eadric. Ƿlfhun. Æþeredes gerædness and æþelflæde ƿið ƿerfrið bisceop and ƿið þone hired on ƿegernaceaster.

          Text Language: Latin and English

          Note: Sawyer 1280, dated 904. 'Wærferth, bishop, and the community at Worcester, to Æthelred and Æthelflæd, their lords; lease, for their lives and that of Ælfwyn, their daughter, of a message (haga) in Worcester and land at Barbourne in North Claines, Worcs., with reversion to the bishop. Bounds of appurtentant meadow west of the Severn' (Sawyer and Keynes 2013).

          Bibliography:

          Herold 2004

          Sawyer and Keynes 2013

             

        • ItemFols 182r/col. 2-82v/col. 1

          Rubric (initial): Bradanleah.

          Incipit (Latin): Donante domino nostro iesu christo

          Explicit (Latin): Ego Ƿaldhere confirmaui. Hanc cartam composui in. iii. feria viii. kalendas december passio sancti chrisogoni. martryis.

          Text Language: Latin

          Note: Sawyer 95, dated 723x737

          Bibliography:

          Herold 2004

             

          • Itemfol. 182v/cols 1-2

            Rubric (initial): Intanbeorge .˥ bradanleah.

            Incipit (Latin): Seculi namque labentis tempora velocius vento ad finem tranant.

            Explicit (Latin): Signum æðelhardi principisSignum bynnan principis.

            Text Language: Latin

            Note: Sawyer 1430, dated 789

            Bibliography:

            Herold 2004

               

            • Itemfol. 182v/col. 2

              Rubric (initial): Intanbeorge .˥ bradanleah.

              Incipit (Latin): In nomine domini nostri iesu christi

              Explicit (Latin): Ego byrnƿald princeps. Ego aldred princeps.

              Text Language: Latin

              Note: Sawyer 1260, dated 903

              Bibliography:

              Herold 2004

                 

              • Itemfol. 182v/col. 2

                 

                • Title (B.15.5.1): Charters: Miscellaneous Texts: Memorandum on Land at Bromsgrove, Worcs Sawyer 1432

                  Rubric (initial): Bremesgraf..

                  Incipit: Ceolulf rex ƿilnade ðæs landes æt bremergrafan to heaberhte bisceope and to his hirede. and þa sende

                  Text Language: English

                  Note: Continues on to BL Add. 46204, Item 1.

                  Sawyer 1432, dated 822×823. 'Memorandum concerning King Ceolwulf's request for land at Bromsgrove, Worcs., from Bishop Heahberht and his community, and a consequent attempt by Wulfheard to obtain possession of Inkberrow, Worcs' (Sawyer and Keynes 2013).

                  Bibliography:

                  Herold 2004

                  Sawyer and Keynes 2013

                     

                • Itemfol. 183r/col. 1

                  Explicit (Latin): Ego aldberht MINISTER ; -

                  Text Language: Latin

                  Note: Sawyer 192, dated 840. Continues from BL Add. 46204, Item 7.

                  Bibliography:

                  Herold 2004

                     

                  • Itemfol. 183r/col. 1

                    Rubric (initial): Breodun.

                    Incipit (Latin): Agio et alto domino deo sabaoth regnanti in euum honor.

                    Explicit (Latin): Ego ƿihtred abbas. Ego ceolred abbas.

                    Text Language: Latin

                    Note: Sawyer 193, dated 841

                    Bibliography:

                    Herold 2004

                       

                    • Itemfol. 183r/cols 1-2

                      Rubric (initial): Uptun.

                      Incipit (Latin): Anno dominicæ incarnationis. dccc. xcvii. indictione. xv. contigit quod æþelwulf uenerabilis dux.

                      Explicit (Latin): Ego Ƿigsƿið matrona. Ego lulle matrona.

                      Text Language: Latin

                      Note: Sawyer 1442, dated 897

                      Bibliography:

                      Herold 2004

                         

                      • Itemfols 183r/col. 2-183v/col. 1

                        Rubric (initial): Bloccan leah.

                        Incipit (Latin): Regnante inperpetuum agio et alto prosatori nostro uniuersitatis creatore in seculorum secula amen.

                        Explicit (Latin): Ego ƿeremberht. dux. Ego mucel dux.

                        Text Language: Latin

                        Note: Sawyer 207, dated 855

                        Bibliography:

                        Herold 2004

                           

                        • Itemfol. 183v/col. 1

                          Rubric (initial): Bæccesore.

                          Incipit (Latin): Ego æþelbald diuina dispensatione rex suðanglorum terram.

                          Explicit (Latin): Ego oba minister. Ego sigebed minister.

                          Text Language: Latin

                          Note: Sawyer 101, dated 727×736

                          Bibliography:

                          Herold 2004

                             

                          • Itemfol. 183v/cols 1-2

                            Rubric (initial): Eoƿlangelad.

                            Incipit (Latin): Cuncta regalia sceptra recto iustoque moderante pio salutore hominum,

                            Explicit (Latin): Ego cudd abbas. Ego brordan princeps.

                            Text Language: Latin

                            Note: Sawyer 109, dated 775

                            Bibliography:

                            Herold 2004

                               

                            • Itemfol. 183v/ col. 2

                              Rubric (initial): Tredintun.

                              Incipit (Latin): Regnante in perpetuum domino deo sabaoth.

                              Explicit (Latin): Siquis uero Augendo multiplicare uoluerit christi instinctus

                              Text Language: Latin

                              Note: Sawyer 55, dated 757.

                              Bibliography:

                              Herold 2004

                                 

                              • Itemfol. 184r/col. 1

                                Rubric (initial): Scotta rið.

                                Incipit (Latin): Regnante in perpetuum domino.

                                Explicit (Latin): Ego æþelberht. Ego æþelric.

                                Text Language: Latin with bounds in Latin and English

                                Note: Sawyer 64, dated 699×709

                                Bibliography:

                                Herold 2004

                                   

                                • Itemfol. 184r/cols 1-2

                                  Incipit (Latin): Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro iesu cuius uidelicet anno incarntionis.

                                  Explicit (Latin): Ego æðered. Ego ƿynnhelm.

                                  Text Language: Latin

                                  Note: Sawyer 1278, dated 872

                                  Bibliography:

                                  Herold 2004

                                     

                                  • Itemfol. 184r/col. 2

                                    Rubric (initial): Su ðham . ˥ muctun æðelstane.

                                    Incipit (Latin): In nomine domini.

                                    Explicit (Latin): leofƿine clericus. ƿulfƿine clericus. godƿine clericus.

                                    Text Language: Latin

                                    Note: Sawyer 1308, dated 991

                                    Bibliography:

                                    Herold 2004

                                       

                                    • Itemfol 184r/ col. 2

                                       

                                      • Title (B.15.3.17): Charters: Bishop's Charters: Bishop Oswald to Eadmær Sawyer 1313

                                        Rubric (initial): Stoce. eadmære.

                                        Incipit (Latin): Ego osuuold largo christi crismate praesul.

                                        Explicit (Latin): ƿynstan clericus. Vfic clericus. Leofƿine clericus.

                                        Text Language: Latin with English

                                        Note: Sawyer 1313, dated 967. 'Oswald, bishop, to Eadmær, his minister; lease, for three lives, of 6 hides (manentes or cassati) at Stoke Orchard, Gloucs., with reversion to the church of Worcester' (Sawyer and Keynes 2013).

                                        Bibliography:

                                        Herold 2004

                                           

                                      • Itemfols 184r/col. 2-84v/col. 1

                                        Rubric (initial): Ƿægclesƿrðe. æðelstane.

                                        Incipit (Latin): Anno incarnationis dominicæ.

                                        Explicit (Latin): ƿulgar clericus. Vfic clericus. ƿulnoð clericus.

                                        Text Language: Latin

                                        Note: Sawyer 1343, dated 981

                                        Bibliography:

                                        Herold 2004

                                           

                                        • Itemfol. 184v/ col. 1

                                          Rubric (initial): Cum tun. eadƿie.

                                          Incipit (Latin): Regnante in perpetuum domino.

                                          Explicit (Latin): ƿulgar clericus. ƿulfƿi clericus. ƿulnoð clericus.

                                          Text Language: Latin

                                          Note: Sawyer 1360, dated 989

                                          Bibliography:

                                          Herold 2004

                                             

                                          • Itemfol. 184v/col. 1

                                            Incipit (Latin): Æterno genitori cum inclita prole sanctoque paraclito laus et honor.

                                            Explicit (Latin): ƿulgar clericus. ƿulnoð clericus. Godƿine clericus.

                                            Text Language: Latin

                                            Note: Sawyer 1375 / 1344, dated 982

                                            Bibliography:

                                            Herold 2004

                                               

                                            • Itemfol. 184v/col. 1

                                              Rubric (initial): Cumtun. ealhferðe.

                                              Incipit (Latin): Anno dominicæ incarnationis.

                                              Explicit (Latin): cyneðen clericus. eadgar clericus. ƿulfric clericus.

                                              Text Language: Latin

                                              Note: Sawyer 1302, dated 962

                                              Bibliography:

                                              Herold 2004

                                                 

                                              • Itemfol. 184v/cols 1-2

                                                Rubric (initial): Æt ofre

                                                Incipit (Latin): Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro iesu christo.

                                                Explicit (Latin): in omnibus subditus sit Ƿigorniensis æcclesiæ pastori.

                                                Text Language: Latin

                                                Note: Sawyer 913, dated 1005

                                                Bibliography:

                                                Herold 2004

                                                   

                                                • Itemfol. 184v/col. 2

                                                   

                                                  • Title (B.16.23.5): Worcester: Additional text

                                                    Incipit: Cenulf mercna cyng gebette. and gefreode. þæt to ƿigernaceastre lið. on tƿa healpe sæferene . xxx. hida.

                                                    Explicit: And beaganbyrig burhred cyng gebecte. Into ƿigeraceastre. þæt is beculne. x. hida. and æt ƿultune. viii. and æt bærendes lea. v. and æt esig. v. Æt coleburnan. viii. hida. Deneberht. bisceop balthune.

                                                    Text Language: Latin

                                                    Bibliography:

                                                    Herold 2004

                                                       

                                                  • Itemfol. 181r/col. 1

                                                     

                                                    • Title (B.15.8.597): Bounds in English: Sawyer 597

                                                      Rubric (initial): Ðis syndon landgemærv to ƿidiandune

                                                      Incipit: Ærest on onnaforde innon tilnoð. ondlong tilnoðes ti ƿaclescumbe. betƿyh ƿaclescumbe and ealdan slæde. in mænanlea.

                                                      Explicit: þonon to aldan dic. onlong dic ofer humburnan. in þa oðre aldan dic. and sƿa on þone mylnpol. of þæm pole to þære port stræt. ondlong stræte to þæm þorne on onnandune. of þære dube into onnancrundele. and sƿa æfter stræte in onnanford.

                                                      Text Language: English

                                                      Note: Sawyer 1556. 'Bounds of Withington, Gloucs' (Sawyer and Keynes 2013).

                                                      Bibliography:

                                                      Herold 2004

                                                      Sawyer and Keynes 2013

                                                         

                                                    • Itemfol. 181r/cols 1-2

                                                      Rubric (initial): boc to ƿestbyrig. regante in perpetuuum domino nostro iesu christo

                                                      Incipit (Latin): Qui mundi monarchiam sua semper uirtute gubernat.

                                                      • Ƿighelm diaconus. Ceofa diaconus. berhthelm diaconus. Cynemund diaconus. Ego dynna diaconus.

                                                        Text Language: Latin

                                                        Note: Sawyer 1433, dated 824.

                                                        Bibliography:

                                                        Herold 2004

                                                           

                                                      • Itemfol. 181v/col. 1

                                                        Rubric (initial): To ƿestbyrig . and to heanbyrig

                                                        Incipit (Latin): In nomine domini nostri iesu christi qui cuncta regit saecula.

                                                        Explicit (Latin): Ego alhmund dux. Ego eadgar dux.

                                                        Bibliography:

                                                        Herold 2004

                                                           

                                                        • Itemfol. 181b/cols 1-2

                                                          Rubric (initial): ƿestbyrig . and stoce

                                                          Incipit (Latin): In nomine domini dei summi.

                                                          Explicit (Latin): Ego byrnwald dux. Ego aldred dux.

                                                          Text Language: Latin

                                                          Note: Sawyer 1187, dated 804.

                                                          Bibliography:

                                                          Herold 2004

                                                             

                                                          • Itemfol. 181v/col. 2

                                                            Rubric (initial): Huntena tun.

                                                            Incipit (Latin): Seculi namque labentis tempora.

                                                            Explicit (Latin): Ego æþlemund. Ego eadgar.

                                                            Text Language: Latin

                                                            Note: Sawyer 148, dated 796.

                                                            Bibliography:

                                                            Herold 2004

                                                               

                                                            • Itemfol. 181v/col. 2

                                                              Rubric (initial): Heanbyrig .and sture.

                                                              Incipit (Latin): In nomine domini iesu.

                                                              Explicit (Latin): redemptione animarum nostrarum. End of the leaf.

                                                              Text Language: Latin

                                                              Note: Sawyer 1411, dated 757×775

                                                              Bibliography:

                                                              Herold 2004

                                                                 


                                                              Object Description

                                                              Form

                                                              Form: Codex

                                                              Support: Parchment

                                                              Extent:

                                                              • 392 mm x 279 mm (dimensions of fols 181-84 - size of leaves)
                                                              • 356 mm x 253 mm (dimensions of fols 181-84 - size of written space)

                                                              Collation: The order of leaves in their original manuscript context was fol. 182; Add. 46024, complete leaf; fol. 183, fol. 184, fol. 181; and Add. 46204, strips (Ker 1948, p. 66).

                                                              Foliation and/or Pagination:

                                                              • Current foliation is '1-222' in 1884 pencil.
                                                              • Pre-1731 and later ink foliation '207-428'
                                                              • Every tenth leaf marked in ink, s. xviiiin: 3v, 23v, 33v, 53v, 63v, 73v, 83v, 93v, 103, 123v, 133v, 143v, 153v, 164v, 174v, 196v, 206v.

                                                              Condition: Parchment is warped from the fire in 1731 and inlaid in modern parchment.

                                                              Layout description:

                                                              • Layout:

                                                                Double columns, 44 lines. The outer pricking is visible. The large capital letters are placed in the double lines on the left side of the writing space.

                                                                See diagram.

                                                                • Layout type: LO20
                                                                • Columns: 2
                                                                • Written Lines: 44
                                                                • Dimensions: ca. 345 mm x ca. 95 mm; ruled

                                                              Hand Description

                                                              • Number of hands: 2
                                                              • Hand: 1
                                                                • Scope: Major
                                                                • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                • Description: fols 181-84v/col. 2, line 7.
                                                                • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                • æ has e higher than a.
                                                                • Insular d is round-backed and its ascender is horizontal.
                                                                • Insular f; the end of the descender curves to the left.
                                                                • Insular g is 5-shaped.
                                                                • Insular h.
                                                                • Larger N is used at the end of the line to fill in the space.
                                                                • Insular r.
                                                                • Insular s is used, as well as long s, which has an extended head. The descender of long ssometimes stops on the writing line.
                                                                • þ is used.
                                                                • ð has a tall ascender, and its cross-bar is mostly a straight horizontal line which extends only to the right of the ascender. The cross bar sometimes curls downwards at the right end.
                                                                • y is dotted, and its descender extends to the left under the previous letter.
                                                                • descenders are straight and shorter than the height of the body of the letter, and slightly curve to the left at the very end.
                                                                • Abbreviations:
                                                                • ˥ mark is high and extends to the length of the descender. The horizontal head is straight or slightly curved backward.
                                                                • The cross-bar of þ for 'þæt' abbreviation ia a straight horizontal line, which extends only to the right of the ascender.
                                                                • Punctuation: · is used.
                                                              • Hand: 2
                                                                • Scope: Major
                                                                • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                • Description: fol. 184v/col. 2, lines 8-44. According to Ker, 'a typical Worcester hand of the second half of the eleventh century' (Ker 1948, p. 66).
                                                                • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                • Insular d has a round back and horizontal ascender.
                                                                • Insular g has a straight top, the loop closes in a round bowl, and the vertical stroke mostly joins the horizontal bar at the middle. When the vertical stroke joins the horizontal bar at the middle, the stroke is straight down.
                                                                • Insular h has a serif at the end of the left leg.
                                                                • Long s has an extended head.
                                                                • ð has a round lobe, and its ascender goes up to the left at an angle of 45º, extending further than the left end of the lobe. The top of the ascender has a long downward serif to the left. The crossbar has a small serif pointing downwards to the right.
                                                                • w is used. All the strokes have serifs to the left.
                                                                • ascenders are twice the height of the body of the letter.
                                                                • descenders are straight and either curl to the left or have a serif at the end.
                                                              Decoration Description

                                                              Rubrics and secondary initials are in red.

                                                              Binding Description

                                                              Rebound in 1969 by the British Museum, stamped with the Cotton arms (British Library Catalogue).

                                                              Modern pastedowns, the upper with the pressmark '691 E' and the lower stamped 'B.M. 1969', five modern paper upper endleaves, the first stamped 'COTTON MS. NERO E. I PART II', three modern paper lower endleaves, the first with a note recording 428 fols struck through then replaced with 222 fols One bibliographical slip recording five items.


                                                              Additional Information

                                                              Administration Information

                                                              Described by Takako Kato with the assistance of Hollie Morgan (2010; 2013).

                                                              Surrogates

                                                              Digital surrogate: http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=cotton_ms_nero_e_i!2_f181r (accessed 18 July 2018)

                                                              EM Project facsimile

                                                              Herold, Jonathan, 'The Wulfstan Cartulary a.k.a. The Nero-Middleton Cartulary, or The St. Oswald Cartulary', in Early Medieval Record Keeping: Exploring the Preservation of Medieval Memoranda, ed. by Jonathan Herold (2004; http://individual.utoronto.ca/emrecordkeeping/Pages/StWulfstanCartMain.html; accessed 18 July 2018)


                                                              History

                                                              Origin

                                                              Origin:

                                                              Written in Worcester under the direction of Bishop Wulfstan II. It was probably once bound with the Offa Bible, an early eighth century Bible given to Worcester by King Offa (See Atkins and Ker 1940, pp. 77-79; Atkins 1940Stevenson 1911).

                                                              Provenance:

                                                              Unknown.

                                                              Acquisition:

                                                              Belonged to Robert Cotton. The British Museum acquired it along with the rest of the Cotton collection.

                                                              Provenance

                                                              Worcester

                                                              Bibliography

                                                              Atkins, Ivor, 'The Church of Worcester from the Eighth to the Twelfth Century, Part II', The Antiquaries Journal, 20 (1940), 1-38, 203-29

                                                              ---, 'The "Oswald" Cartulary', Antiquaries Journal, 20 (1940), 220-22

                                                              Atkins, Ivor, and Neil R. Ker, eds, Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae Made in 1622-1623 by Patrick Yound Librarian to King James I(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1944)

                                                              Birch, Walter de Gray, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum : A Collection of Charters Relating to Anglo-Saxon History (London: Whiting and Company; Chas J. Clark, 1883-1893)

                                                              Bischoff, Bernhard, and Virginia Brown, 'Addenda to Codices Latini Antiquiores', Medieaval Studies, 47 (1985), 317-66

                                                              British Library Manuscripts Catalogue (British Library, http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/manuscripts/; accessed in 2010)

                                                              Brown, Michelle, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1991)

                                                              Brown, Michelle P., The Book of Cerne: Prayer, Patronage and Power in Ninth- Century England (London: British Library, 1996)

                                                              ---, The Lindisfarne Gospels: Society, Spirituality and the Scribe (London: University of Toronto Press, 2003)

                                                              ---, 'Mercian Manuscripts? The "Tiberius" Group and its Historical Context', in Mercia: An Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe, ed. by Michelle P. Brown and Carol Farr (London: Continuum, 2001), pp. 279-90

                                                              Davis, G. R. C., Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain: A Short Catalogue(London: Longmans Green, 1958)

                                                              Dugdale, W., Monasticon Anglicanum, 6 vols (1817-30)

                                                              Gameson, Richard, The Manuscripts of Early Norman England (c. 1066-1130)(Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1999)

                                                              ---, 'Alfred the Great and the Destruction and Production of Christian Books', Scriptorium, 49 (1995), 180-210

                                                              Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001), item 344.5

                                                              Haddan, Arthur West, and William Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1869)

                                                              Herold, Jonathan, 'The Wulfstan Cartulary a.k.a. The Nero-Middleton Cartulary, or The St. Oswald Cartulary', in Early Medieval Record Keeping: Exploring the Preservation of Medieval Memoranda, ed. by Jonathan Herold (2004; http://individual.utoronto.ca/emrecordkeeping/Pages/StWulfstanCartMain.html, accessed in 2010)

                                                              Kemble, John M., Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici, 6 vols (London: Sumptibus Societatis, 1839-48)

                                                              Ker, N. R., 'Hemming's Cartulary: A Description of the Two Worcester Cartularies in Cotton Tiberius A. xiii', in Studies in Medieval History Presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke, ed. by R. W. Hunt, W. A. Pantin and R.W. Southern (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1948), pp. 49-75

                                                              ---, 'Membra Disiecta', British Museum Quarterly, 12 (1937-38), 130-35

                                                              ---, Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 29

                                                              Lowe, E. A., Codices Latini Antiquiores: A Palaeographical Guide to Latin Manuscripts prior to the Ninth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972)

                                                              Marsden, Richard, 'Manus Bedae: Bede's Contribution to Ceolfrith's Bibles', Anglo- Saxon England, 27 (1998), 65-85

                                                              Robertson, A. J, Anglo-Saxon Charters, 2nd edn (1939; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956)

                                                              Sawyer, P. H., Anglo-Saxon Charters: An Annotated List and Bibliography(London: Royal Historical Society, 1968)

                                                              ---, and Simon Keynes, The Electronic Sawyer: Online Cataogue of Anglo-Saxon Charters (CCH, King's College London, http://www.esawyer.org.uk/, 2013)

                                                              Stevenson, W. H., Report on the MSS. of Lord Middleton (Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1911)

                                                              Thomson, Rodney Malcolm, and Michael Gullick, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Medieval Manuscripts in Worcester Cathedral Library (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Published on behalf of the Dean and Chapter of Worcester Cathedral by Brewer, 2001)

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