London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius B. i

Present Location
Repository
Collection
Shelfmark

Tiberius B. i

Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

191

Gnuess/Lapidge

370, 370.2

Summary

A composite manuscript containing the Old English translation of Orosius copied in s. xi1, the Menologium and some gnomic verses copied in s. ximed, and the C-text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, mostly copied in s. ximed, and for 1056 and 1066 copied between c. 1066 and s. xi2. On fol. 164, 8 lines might date from s. xi/xii.

The Old English Orosius is annotated with alterations to grammar and spelling and textual emendations. Ker (1957, p. 252) dates these annotations to s. xi/xii. However, the characteristics of the annotating hand(s) resemble those of the Tremulous Hand in some respects.  

Digital Surrogate

Manuscript Items
  1. Itemfols 3r-7r

     

    • Title (B.9.2.1.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Headings: Chapter headings, books 1-6 of the Old English Orosius

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 3r) Her onginneð seo boc þe man prosius nemneð

      Incipit(fol. 3r) Vre yldran ealne ðysne ymbhƿyrft on þreo | to dældon

      Explicit( fol. 7r) Hu god dyde romanum his miltsunge

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

      O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

         

    • Itemfols 7-28

       

      • Title (B.9.2.2.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 1

        Incipit(fol. 7v) VRE YLDRAN EALNE ÐYSNE YMBHǷYRFT ÐUSES MIDDANGEARDES CǷÆT OROSIUS. | sƿa sƿa oceanus ymbligeð utan ðone man gar | segc hatað on ðreo to dældon ˥ hu hy þa þry dælas on | ðreo to nemdon asiam europam ˥ africam

        Explicit(fol. 28v) Her | endað sio forme boc. ˥ onginð sio æftere

        Text Language: English

        Bibliography:

        Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

        O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

           

      • Itemfols 28-42

         

        • Title (B.9.2.3.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 2

          Incipit(fol. 28v) IC ǷENE CǷÆÐ OROSIVS | ÐÆT NAN WIS MANNE SY BUTAN HE GENOH GEARE ǷITE. ÐÆT | god þone ærestan man rihtne ˥ godne gesceop | ˥ eall mancynn mid him

          Explicit(fol. 42r) Ne ƿene | ic cƿæð orosius nu ic lange spell hæbbe to segcenne || þæt ic hy on þysse bec geendian mæge ac ic oðere ongin | nan sceal

          Text Language: English

          Bibliography:

          Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

          O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

             

        • Itemfols 42-63

           

          • Title (B.9.2.4.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 3

            Rubric (initial): (fol. 42r) ÆFTER ÐAM ÐE ROME | BVRH GETIMBRAD ǷAS III HUND ǷINTRA ˥ LUII ON ÞAM | dagum þe gallie rome aƿest hæfdon ; Þa geƿearð | seo mæste sibb ˥ seo bysmorlecoste betƿih læce | demonium creca londe ˥ persum

            Incipit(fol. 63r) Ne furþon þaet þa ƿoldon gefryn beon þe ƿæron ge | broðra of fæder ˥ of meder

            Explicit:

            Text Language: English

            Bibliography:

            Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

            O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

               

          • Itemfols 63-83

             

            • Title (B.9.2.5.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 4

              Rubric (initial): (fol. 63r) INCIPIT LIBER QUARTUS

              Incipit(fol. 63r) ÆFTER ÐAM ÐE ROMEBURH GETIMBRED | ƿæs .cccc. hund ƿintrum .˥ lxiiii. gum þæt taren | tine þæt folc plegedon

              Explicit(fol. 83r) Sƿa þonne is me nu | sƿiðe earfeðe heora mod to ahƿettane nu hit na | ðor nele beon ne scearp ne heard

              Text Language: English and Latin

              Bibliography:

              Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

              O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                 

            • Itemfol. 83

               

              • Title (B.9.2.6.1.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 5 [headings]

                Incipit(fol. 83r) I. Hu ororius spræc umbe romana gylþ

                Explicit(fol. 83v) .XV Hu sume ispania ƿæron aguster ƿiðerƿinnan.

                Text Language: English

                Bibliography:

                Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                   

              • Itemfols 84-96

                 

                • Title (B.9.2.6.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 5

                  Incipit(fol. 84r) IC ǷAT CǷÆÐ OROSIUS. HǷÆT SE ROMANA | gilþ sƿiðost is

                  Explicit(fol. 96r) her endað seo .v. boc. ˥ ongingð seo .vi.

                  Text Language: English

                  Bibliography:

                  Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                  O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                     

                • Itemfols 96-97

                   

                  • Title (B.9.2.7.1.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 6 [headings]

                    Incipit(fol. 96r) Hu orosius ƿæs sprecende ymb þa .iiii. anƿealdas | þara .iiii. heafodlice þisses middangeardes

                    Explicit(fol. 97r) Hu god gedyde romanum his miltsunge

                    Text Language: English

                    Bibliography:

                    Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                    O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                       

                  • Itemfols 97-111

                     

                    • Title (B.9.2.7.EM): Orosius, History of the World: Book 6

                      Incipit(fol. 97r) NU IC ǷILLE CǷÆÐ OROSIVS ON FOREǷEARDRE | þisse .vi. bec gereccean þæt hit þeah godes bebod | ƿæs þeah hit strang ƿære. Hu emlice. þa feoƿer | anƿealdas þara feoƿer heafodrica þisses middan | geardes gestodon

                      Explicit(fol. 111v) Siþþon sætan þa gotan | þær on lande. sume be þæs caseƿer ƿillan. Sume hi foran on ispanie. ˥ þær | gesætan. Sume on affrice

                      Text Language: English

                      Bibliography:

                      Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                      O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                         

                    • Itemfols 112-14

                       

                      • Title (A.14): The Menologium

                        Incipit(fol. 112r) CRIST ǷÆS ACEN | NYD CYNINGA ǷVLdor | on middne ƿinter mære þeoden ece ælmihtig on | þy eahteoðan dæg hælend gehaten heofon rices | ƿeard.

                        Explicit(fol. 114v) nu gefindan magon | haligra tiid þe man healdan sceal Sƿa bebugeð gebod | geond brytenricu. sexna kyninges on þas sylfan tiid.

                        Text Language: English

                        Bibliography:

                        Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                        O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                           

                      • Itemfol. 115

                         

                        • Title (A.15): Maxims II

                          Incipit(fol. 115r) CYNING SCEAL RICE HEALDAN

                          Explicit(fol. 115v) næni eft cymeð hider under hrofas. þe þæt her | for soð mannum secge hƿylc sy meotodes gesceaft | sigefolca gesetu þær he sylfa ƿunað

                          Text Language: English

                          Bibliography:

                          Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                          O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                             

                        • Itemfols 115-64

                           

                          • Title (B.17.7): Chronicles and Historical Texts [Chronicle, C-text] eleventh-century copy of Anglo-Saxon chronicle, MS C to 1066

                            Incipit(fol. 115v) Æscnesse .lx. ƿintra galius iulius se casere | ærest romana brytenland gesohte. ˥ bryt | tas mid gefeohte cnysede ˥ hy ofersƿiððe. ˥ sƿa þeah || ne mihte þær rice geƿinnan

                            Explicit(fol. 164vexplicit occurs on fol. 162v, which is now out of order but the last folio on which part of this text occurs is 164v) ˥ þær ƿar | harold cyning of norƿegum ˥ tostig eorl ofslagen ˥ ungerim | folces mid heom ægðer ge normana ge englisca ˥ þa normenends imperfectly

                            Text Language: English

                            Bibliography:

                            Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                            O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003

                               

                          • Itemfol. 164

                             

                            • Title (B.27.3.45): Addition: twelfth-century addition eleventh-century copy of the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, MS C to 1066

                              Incipit(fol. 164r) begins imperfectly to follow on from 11th century copy flugon þa englisa. Ða ƿes þer an of norƿegan þe ƿiðstod þet en | glisce folc þet hi ne micte þa brigge oferstigan ne sige ge | rechen

                              Explicit(fol. 164r) ˥ þes cyninges supart illegible het | mundus let harold faran ham to norƿeie mid alle þa scipe

                              Text Language: English

                              Bibliography:

                              Ker 1957, pp. 251-53

                              O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003


                            Object Description

                            Form

                            Form: codex

                            Extent:

                            • c. 280 mm x 195 mm (dimensions of all - size of leaves)
                            • 215-224 mm x 130-136 mm (dimensions of all - size of written space)

                            Foliation and/or Pagination:

                            Fols v + 163 + ii, foliated in pencil (i-iii), (i), 1-165, (166, 167). Ker 1957counts seven preliminary flyleaves in his foliation (p. 253), but the manuscript was rebound in 1957, and this removed some flyleaves (O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003, p. 2). Fols 3-164 were foliated by Planta 1-162. Flyleaves: three at the front; two of thick modern paper and not numbered, and one paper from the post-medieval period which O’Brien O’Keeffe notes is ‘pasted in with with a contents list almost identical to that in the 1706 Catalogue’ (2003, p. 2). This flyleaf is numbered ‘I’ and labelled in pencil 'Tiberus [sic] B. i. | VIII F'. O’Brien O’Keeffe (2003, p. 2) reports Andrew Prescott identifying this as ‘a Montague pressmark in use from about 1810-27’. There are two parchment flyleaves which are now foliated 1 and 2. Fol. 1r contains a contents list, s. xvii and fol. 2r is an engraved title page from Robert Cotton's library.

                            Collation:

                            Collation of fols 3-165: 1-118 (fols 3-90), 128 + 1 leaf after 8 (fols 91-99), 1310+ 1 leaf after 9 (fols 100-110), 141 (fol. 111), 15-208 (fols 112-59), 214 (fols 160-63), 222 (fols 164- 65).

                            The final quire – Quire 22, a quire of two – was added in s. xii. Fol. 164r contains a supplement to the Chronicle entry for 1066, in mid-twelfth-century script. The text which precedes it on fol. 162v runs as far as middle of the battle of Stamford Bridge, and one or more folios appears to have been lost (O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003, p. 3).

                            Note:

                            • The order for the leaves in Quire 21 should be fols 161, 163, 160 and 162. These were perhaps reordered in the aftermath of the 1731 fire, when water damage also occurred. 27 long lines (25 lines on fols 3-34). Ruling on the hair side. Prick marks are no longer visible, as the manuscript has been trimmed. The first seven quires are arranged HFHF, Quires 7-13 are arranged HHHH, Quires 15-21 are 'arranged so that hair meets hair and flesh meets flesh' (O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003, p. 2) and Quire 22 is arranged FH.

                            Hand Description

                            • Number of hands: 13. Three from the period 1060-1220
                            • Summary: Some of the hands in the manuscript share characteristics which can be found in contemporary Worcester hands. Ker notes 'the long upstroke of ð is prominent and the ends of descenders tend to curve to the left. Hyphens [...] are level with the tops of low letters, as often in Worcester MSS' (1957, p. 237), a feature which can also be found, for instance, in Laud Misc 509Laud Misc 492 and Tiberius B. iv, fol. 81. This distinctive letter-form ð, with a long ascender leaning far over to the left and ending with a curled or flicked return, and double eths of similar shape, lined up in parallel and a strong single cross-bar with curled terminals, can also be identified in some of the hands of Tiberius B. i. Fols 160v and 162r include good examples, as well as fols 163r and 163v (datable to ximed); also compare with fol. 161v, l. 10 ð. The annals for 1065 and 1066 to 'þa normen' (fols 160, 162) are in two hands; the first hand ending with 'to sandƿic'. The last part of the annal for 1066 is supplied in a hand of s. xi/xii on fol. 164r.
                            • Hand: main text
                              • Scope: major
                              • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                              • Ker reference: Ker 191 SC1
                              • Description: Fols 160-162. Round and small minuscule
                              • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                              • a is Caroline.
                              • Long s with tapered descender and a hooked head which at times almost closes on itself.
                              • small d with short ascender.
                              • back-stroke ð with long ascender ending with a tail to the left and a cross-bar with a right-side dot to the right.
                              • Date: xi2
                            • Hand: main text
                              • Scope: major
                              • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                              • Ker reference: Ker 191 SC2
                              • Description: Fols 162r/7-162v. Round and small minuscule very similar to the one immediately preceding it.
                              • Summary of the characteristics of the hand: Retains the special insular letter-forms:
                              • a is insular.
                              • Long s with short descender, finishing just below the line of writing and a short hooked head.
                              • Small d with short ascender almost upright.
                              • Back-stroke ð with long ascender ending with a very short tail to the left. At times especially in double ð, the ascender curves slightly to the right.
                              • Date: xi2
                            • Hand: main text
                              • Scope: major
                              • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                              • Ker reference: Ker 191 SC3
                              • Description: Fol. 164r. A larger minuscule with letter forms of squarish proportion, which retain the special insular letter-forms.
                              • Summary of the characteristics of the hand: Retains the special insular letter-forms except:
                              • a is Caroline.
                              • g is insular.
                              • d: round back with curved ascender to the left.
                              • Litterae Notabiliores:
                              • Tironian Nota is, in two cases, short with curved descender to the right and almost sitting on the line of writing.
                              • Other manuscripts:
                                • Elaine Treharne (private communication) identifies this hand as the same hand as that of CCCC 391, fol. 617. CCCC 391has been firmly localised to Worcester.
                              • Date: xi/xii
                            • Hand: glosses and alterations
                              • Scope: minor
                              • Scribe: Tremulous Hand
                              • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                              • Description: The Old English Orosius is annotated with alterations to grammar and spelling and textual emendations. They are either in two hands or in two phases of a single hand. The characteristics of the annotating hand(s) resemble those of the Tremulous Hand in some respects.
                              • Date: xiii1
                            Decoration Description

                            On fol. 112r the body of initial capital C is decorated with interlaced biting beasts and fol. 115v the initial Æ is ornamented with two biting beast-heads, interlacing and foliage (Wormald 1945, pp. 121-22). Other initials are in metallic red or purple-red (Ker 1957, p. 253). In part 1, chapter headings and ornamental capitals are in a range of colours, including red, metallic red, orange, green and ivory, mauve and black (O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003, p. 3).

                            Additions

                            On fol. 164v is the notation 'Cons. Fol. 162', which O'Brien O'Keeffe presumes is the annotation for the 1706 Catalogue suggests that the last quire has been reversed and that fol. 164v was at some point the last sheet (2003, p. 2).

                            On fol. 3 Robert Talbot has written 'Rex Alfredus Orosium interpretatus estBoetium et Bedam de historia ecclesiastica'. He has also underlined names and marginal annotations throughout (O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003, p. 1).

                            John Joscelyn (1529-1603) filled in lacunae in the Chronicle at the years 1055, 1065 and 1066, added 'Humbran' and 'mid ðreom hund scypum', to the 1066 entry and 'god man 7 clæne 7 swᵗiðe æðele' to the incomplete end of the 1056 entry (O'Brien O'Keeffe 2003, p. 1).

                              On fol. 112r Robert Cotton wrote 'Cronica Saxonica Abbingdoniæ ad annum 1066'

                              Binding Description

                              Repaired and rebound in 1839. Rebound in 1865 and again in 1957.


                              Additional Information

                              Administration Information

                              Manuscript described by Mary Swan with the assistance of Hollie Morgan and Sanne van der Schee, hand descriptions by Orietta Da Rold; ed. by Takako Kato (2010; 2013).

                              Surrogates

                              Digital surrogate: http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=cotton_ms_tiberius_b_i_f003r (accessed 18 July 2018)

                              EM Project facsimile

                              O'Brien O'Keeffe, Katherine, 'London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius B. i: OE Orosius; "Menologium," "Maxims II," Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (C-text)', in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003), vol. 10: Manuscripts Containing the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Works by Bede, and Other Texts, pp. 1-6


                              History

                              Origin
                              • Origin:

                                Unknown. Ker notes that from 977 onwards there are local entries relating to Abingdon (1957, p. 253), although O'Brien O'Keeffe argues that the ascription of an Abingdon provenance is mainly due to tradition and is difficult to sustain (2001, pp. lxxiv-xcii and 2003, p. 1) . Considering the analysis of some of the hands, it likely that there is also a layer of production in Worcester.

                              • Provenance:

                                May have been in Abingdon from s. ximed (Ker 1957, p. 253).

                              • Acquisition:

                                O’Brien O’Keeffe reports that the manuscript was owned by Robert Talbot, prebendary of Norwich (d. 1558), during which time Robert Recorde (d. 1558) made extracts from the Chronicle (2003, p. 1). John Leland (d. 1552) copied some of Talbot’s annotations and glosses into his CollectaneaLaurence Nowell copied part of Chronicle in London, British Library, Add. 43704. William Bowyer (d. 1576), Keeper of the Records in the Tower of London. Robert Cotton acquired the manuscript as a result of an exchange with Robert Bowyer by exchange, as recorded in the 1621 Cotton catalogue (British Library, Harley 6018, fols 154v, 158r). Acquired by the British Museum along with the rest of the Cotton library.

                              Provenance

                              Unknown

                              Bibliography

                              Bately, Janet M., 'Manuscript Layout and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 70 (1988), 21-43

                              ---, ed., The Old English Orosius, EETS, SS 6 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980)

                              Classen, E., and F. E. Harmer, An Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1926)

                              Conner, Patrick W., ed., The Abingdon Chronicle, A.D. 956-1066 (MS. C, with Reference to BDE), The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition, 10 (Cambridge: Brewer, 1996)

                              Cubbin, G. P., ed., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition MS D, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition (Bury St. Edmunds: St Edmundsbury Press, 1996), vol. 6

                              Dickins, Bruce, 'The Late Addition to ASC 1066 C', in Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Literary and Historical Section, 3 (1940), vol. 5, pp. 148-49

                              Dobbie, Elliott van Kirk, ed., The Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems, The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 6 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942)

                              Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001), item 370

                              Graham, Timothy, 'Robert Talbot's "Old Saxonice Bede": Cambridge University Library MS Kk. 3. 18 and the "Alphabetum Norwagicum" of British Library, Cotton MS Domitian A. IX', in Books and Collectors 1200-1700, ed. by James C. Carley and Colin G.C Tite (London: The British Library, 1997), pp. 295-316

                              Hearne, Thomas, ed., Joannis Lelandi Antiquarii de Rebus Britannicis Collectanea, 2nd edn, 6 vols (London: Benj. White, 1774; Westmead, Farnborough, Hants: Gregg, 1970)

                              Keller, Wolfgang, Angelsaechsische Paleographie, Palaestra 43, 2 vols (Berlin: Mayer & Mueller, 1906)

                              Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 191

                              Lendinara, Patrizia, 'Versi Gnomici anglosassoni', Annali, 14 (1971), 117-38

                              Lutz, Angelika, 'Das Studium der Angelsächsischen Chronik im 16. Jahr-hundert: Nowell und Joscelyn', Anglia, 100 (1982), 301-56

                              ---, 'Zur Entstehungsgeschichte von William Somners Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum', Anglia, 106 (1988), 1-25

                              O'Brien O'Keeffe, Katherine, ed., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MS C, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition, 5 (Cambridge: Brewer 2001)

                              ---, 'London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius B. i: OE Orosius; "Menologium", "Maxims II", Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (C-text)', in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003), vol. 10: Manuscripts Containing the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Works by Bede, and Other Texts, pp. 1-6

                              ---, 'Reading the C-Text: The After-Lives of London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius B. i', in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts and their Heritage, ed. by Phillip Pulsiano and Elaine Treharne (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), pp. 137-60

                              Onions, C. Talbot, 'Some Early Middle-English Spellings', Modern Language Review, 4 (1908-09), 505-07

                              Plummer, Charles, ed., Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, repr. with a bibliographical note by Dorothy Whitelock, 2 vols (1892-99; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952)

                              Prescott, Andrew, '"Their Present Miserable State of Cremation": The Restoration of the Cotton Library', in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and his Legacy, ed. by C. J. Wright (London: British Library, 1997), pp. 391-446

                              Roberts, Jane, Guide to Scripts Used in English Writings up to 1500 (London: British Library, 2005)

                              Rositzke, Harry August, ed., The C-Text of the Old English Chronicles, Beiträge zur englischen Philologie, 34 (Bochum-Langendreer: H. Pöppinghaus OHG, 1940; New York: Johnson Reprints, 1967)

                              Scragg, Donald, Alexander Rumble, and Kathryn Powell, C11 Database Project(Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, http://www.arts.manchester.ac.uk/mancass/c11database/; accessed in 2009)

                              Temple, Elzbieta, ed., Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, 900-1066, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 2 (London: Harvey Miller, 1976)

                              Thorpe, B., ed., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Rolls Series, 23 (London: Longman, 1861)

                              Tite, Colin G.C., The Manuscript Library of Sir Robert Cotton, The Panizzi Lectures (London: The British Library, 1994)

                              Toswell, E. Jane, 'The Metrical Psalter and The Menologium: Some Observations', Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 94 (1993), 249-57

                              Wanley, H., Librorum Veterum Septentrionalium Catalogus (Oxford, 1705)

                              Watson, Andrew George, Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts, c. 700-1600 in the Department of Manuscripts, the British Library, 2 vols (London: British Museum, 1979)

                              Whitelock, Dorothy, ed., The Peterborough Chronicle: The Bodleian Manuscript Laud Misc. 636, with an appendix by Cecil Clark, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, 4 (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1954)

                              Wormald, F, 'Decorated Initials in English MSS from A.D. 900-1100', Archaeologia, 91 (1945), 107-35

                                Wright, C. E, 'Robert Talbot and Domitian A.ix', Medium Aevum, 6 (1937), 170-71