Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 155 (1974)

Present Location
Repository
Collection
Shelfmark

155 (1974)

Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

303

Gnuess/Lapidge

544

Summary

An English record (s. xi/xii) is among documents relating to the nunnery of Barking copied on the final leaf of a Latin Gospel-Book (s. x/xi). The Gospel-Book, which is written in insular minuscule, includes miniatures of the seraphim positioned before the gospels of Luke (fol. 93v) and John (fol. 146v). The book is now mutilated at the beginning, and is also missing a leaf, presumably containing another miniature, before the Gospel of Mark.

Manuscript Items
  1. Item: Fols 1r/16-52v/14

     

    • Title: The Gospel according to Matthew

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 1r/16) genuit esrom; Esrom autem.ʹ genuit aram; (The top half of fol. 1 has been cut away.)

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 52v/13-4) Ecce ego uobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad con summationem saeculi

      Rubric (final): (fol. 52v/15-16) EXPLICIT EVANGELIVM | SECUNDUM MATHEUM·

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Fols 1r-v and 8r-v: by Main 2. The rest is by Main 1.

      Date: Fols 1r-v and 8r-v: late tenth-century; the rest: early eleventh-century.

  2. Item: Fols 52v/15-54v/20

     

    • Title: Chapter list for the Gospel according to Mark

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 52v/17-9) INCIPIUNT CAPITULA | SANCTI EUANGELII· | SECUNDUM MARCUM·

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 53r/1-2) Et erat iohannes baptizans. Et uenit super | ihesum spiritus sanctus. et fuit indeserto temptatus

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 54v/17-21) Post resurrectionem apparuit ihesus | apostolis et dixit qui crediderit | et baptizatus fuerit saluabitur. | qui non crediderit damnabitur. | qt rectus est in caelis dominus ·

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  3. Item: Fols 54v/21-55v

     

    • Title: Preface to the Gospel according to Mark, 'Marcus Evangelista'

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 54v/21-3) INCIPIUNT ARGV | MENTVM EUANGELII· | SECUNDUM MAR CUM:-

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 55r/1-4) MARCUS EVANGE | LISTA DEI FLECTUS | et petri inbaptismate filius. | atque indiuino sermone discipulus.

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 55v/26) Dehinc inquisita uoulumus agnosci ˙

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  4. Item: Fols 56r-88v/14

     

    • Title: The Gospel according to Mark

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 56r/1) INCIPIT· EVANGELIUM· SECUNDUM· MARCUM·

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 56r/2-4) INITIVM EUANGELII | ihesu cristi filii dei sicut scriptum est in isa | ia propheta˙

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 88v/11-14) Illi autem profecti praedica | uerunt ubique. domino coope rante etser | monem confirmante sequentibus | signis˙

      Rubric (final): (fol. 88v/15-16) EXPLICIT EUANGELIVM· | SECUNDUM· MARCUM·

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  5. Item: Fols 88v/17-20-92r

     

    • Title: Chapter List for the Gospel according to Luke

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 88v/17-20) INCIPIVNT· CAPI | TULA· SANCTI EUANGELII· | SECUNDUM· | LUCAM:-

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 88v/1-4) Zachariae sacerdoti apparuit gabriel | angelus. et annuntiauit ei filium iohannem. | Et iohannes precederat dominum in spiritu ha eliae. | et idem nuntiauit mariae filium ihesum˙

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 92r/22-24) Post resurrectionem apparuit ihesus duobus | apostolis euntibus inuillam. et benedicens eos | ascendit incaelis·

      Rubric (final): (fol. 92r/25) EXPLICIT· CAPITULA· SECUNDUM· LUCAM·

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  6. Item: Fols 92v-93r

     

    • Title: Preface to the Gospel according to Luke, 'Lucas syrus'

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 92v/1-2) INCIPIT PROLOGUS· SANCTI EVANGELII· | SECUNDVM LUCAM·

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 92v/3-5) LUCAS SYRUS | natione antiochensis arte medicus. discipulus | apostolorum.

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 93r/21-23) uitauimus publicam curiositatem. ne | non tam uolentibus monstare  deum uidemur quam fastifientibus prodidisse˙

      Rubric (final): (fol. 93r/24) EXPLICIT PRAEFATIO:-

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  7. Item: Fols 93v-144r

     

    • Title: The Gospel according to Luke

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 94r/1) INCIPIT· EUANGELIUM· SECVNDUM· LUCAM·

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 94r/2-5) QUONIAM QUIDEM | multi conati sunt ordinare narra | tionem quae innobis comple | tesunt rerum.

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 144r/21-2) Et erant semper in templo laudantes | et bene dicentes deum. AMEN

      Rubric (final): (fol. 144r/23-4) EXPLICIT· EUANGELIUM· | SECVNDUM· LUCAM·

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

      Decoration: Full page miniature of the seraphim (fol. 93v). The drawing, in black and red, is contained within a double border. The seraphim carries a banner inscribed 'Fuit in diebus herodis regis iudeae sacerdos' (Luke 1:5).

  8. Item: Fols 144v-145r/11

     

    • Title: Preface to the Gospel according to John, 'Hic est iohannes'

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 144v/1-2) INCIPIT PROLOGUS SANCTI HIERO | NIMI IN IOHANNEM˙

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 144v/3-5) Hic est iohannes euangelista unus ex discipulis dei. qui uirgo electus est adeo. quem de nuptiis uolentem nubere uocauit deus· |

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 145r/10) et deo magisterii doctrina seruietur amen˙

      Rubric (final): (fol. 145r/11) EXPLICIT PROLOGUS

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  9. Item: Fols 145r/12-146r

     

    • Title: Chapter List for the Gospel according to John

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 144v/12-3) INCIPIUNT CAPITULA SANCTI EUUANGELII | SECUNDUM IOHANNEM˙

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 145r/14-5) Iohannes testimonium perhibet de cristo. nonsum dignus | corrigiam calciamenti eius soluere˙

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 145r/24-5) Etcum tertio manifestaret se ihesus discipulis. ait petro. | ter. parce oues mease. et sequere me˙

      Rubric (final): (fol. 145r/26) EXPLICIT CAPITULA˙

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  10. Item: Fols 146v-182r

     

    • Title: The Gospel according to John

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 147r/1-2) INITIUM SANCTI EUANGELIUM | SECUNDUM IOHANNEM·

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 147r/3-5) IN PRINCIPIO ERAT | uerbum. et uerbum erat apud deum. et deus erat | uerbum˙

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 182r/23-6) Sunt autem et alia multa quae | fecit ihesus. quae si scribantur persingula. nec ip | sum arbitror mundum capere eos qui | scribendi sunt libros˙

      Rubric (final): (fol. 182r/26) EXPLICIT· EUANGELIUM· | SECUNDUM· IOHANNEM

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

      Decoration: Full page miniature of the seraphim (fol. 146v). The drawing, executed in black and red, is contained within a double border. The seraphim carries a banner, to which Batman added the inscription 'Credo uidere bona domini in terra viuentium' (Ps 26:13), signing it 'SB'.

  11. Item: Fols 182v-196r

     

    • Title: Gospel Capitulary

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 182v/1-9) INCIPIT ARGUMENTUM· QUOMODO IN EODEM AN | NALI LIBRO· EXPONENDO NOMEN EUANGELISTAE | CUIUSQUE CUIUSQUE SIT UEL TITULI NUMERUM· EUANGE | LIA INCORPORIBUSPRAECEDENTIUM LIBRORUM | SINE ULLO ERRORE REPERIANTUR· QUAE DOMINICIS | AUT FESTIS DIEBUSUEL ETIAM COTIDIANIS DIEBUS | SECUNDUM CUIUSQUE DIEI· UEL EBDOMADAE. UEL MENSIS. UEL | TEMPORIS CONGRUENTIAM IN ECCLESIA PER TOTUM ANNUM | CON UENIANT AD LEGENDUM˙

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 182v/10-11) VIIII KALENDA IANUARII IN uigilia natiuitas domini secundum matheum kapitula iii | Cum esset desponsata mater ihesu. Usque a peccatis eorum˙

      Explicit (Latin): (fol. 196r/9-11) FERIA ·VII· Sabbato in xii lectionibus. Secundum lucam kapitula ·vi· | Anno quinto decimo imperii tyberii caesaris. | usque omnis caro salutare dei·

      Text Language: In Latin.

      Note: This capitulary appears to rely on a Breton exemplar, and is closely related to that found in the Leofric Gospels (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Auct D. 2. 16).

      Hand: Main 1

      Date: Early eleventh-century.

  12. Item: Fol. 196v/1-5

     

    • Title (B.16.1): Barking, List of Lands

      Incipit: (fol. 196v/1) Her seiþ humycel landes Gilebeard hæfþ on stiþforde.

      Explicit: (fol. 196r/3-5) þæt is gewitnesse· Siȝer· Siƿord· æȝelnoþ | æȝelƿine ælfstan· Godȝine on ƿearlea Sælide· Ealdwine Hubeard· ælfred nuzpeoz  | Tedbeard.

      Text Language: English

      Date: s. xi/xii

      Hand: Main 3

      Bibliography:

      Hart, Early Charters of Essex 1957, 25-27

         

    • Item: Fol. 196v/6-20

       

      • Title: Charter of Adam of Cockfield, 1100x1118

        Rubric (initial): (fol. 196v/5) Cyrographum.

        Incipit (Latin): (fol. 196v/6-9) Hoc testamentum fieri iussum est a domina abbatissa Ælfgiua de | decima quam optulit adam filius leomari de cochefelda ęcclesię | sanctę MARIĘ in berchingis die natiuitatis sancti iohannis baptistę. | sic dicens.

        Explicit (Latin): (fol. 196v/15-20) Hos quos presentes hic uideo | testes adhibeo. Qui sunt.ʹ Willelmus monachus de sancto Eadmundo. Godricus. Wlfricus. Rogerius frater rodberti uitrici | mei. Filco & Rogerus fratres mei de matre mea. Wluardus de | hueluetham. Godricus presbyter de sexham. Walterus de riseby. | Siuuardus de ginga. Sigarus dapifer. Maximus presbiter leuesunus | presbyter. Sabernus prepositus. Ailmarus frater eius. In ęternum Amen.

        Text Language: In Latin

        Date: s. xii1

        Hand: Main 4

        Decoration: Begins with a two-line plain h. Another single-line plain display capital is found at the beginning of fol. 196v/18, in the midst of the witness list.

        Bibliography:

        Hart, Charter of Adam of Cockfield 1957, 469


      Object Description

      Form

      Codex

      Support: Parchment.

      Extent:

      • iii + 196 + i 262 mm x 198 mm (dimensions of all - size of leaves)

      Foliation/Pagination: There are two foliations. The pencil foliation, which only runs as far as 68, counts one leaf before fol. 1 (either the present fol. iii or a now lost leaf) and skips from 55 to 57. The ink foliation, followed here, runs i-iii, 1-197.

      Collation:

      Quires: Fols 1-196: 18; 1, 8 no longer conjoint, 2-68, 78 wants 8 after fol. 57, 8-248, 256 wants 6 after fol. 196, presumably blank. The leaf missing from Quire 7, before the beginning on Mark's gospel, presumably carried an illustration. The construction of Quire 1 is uncertain. Fols 1 and 8 are in Hand 2, while fols 2-7 are in Hand 1. If the manuscript contained all the prefatory matter which the related Leofric Gospels (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Auct D. 2. 16) once contained, then up to two quires may have been lost here. Note however the signature '.ii.' on Quire 2.

      Signatures:

      • Quire 2 (fol. 16v): .ii.
      • Quire 3 (fol. 24v): .iii.
      • Quire 4 (fol. 32v): .iiii.
      • Quire 5 (fol. 40v): .u.
      • Quire 6 (fol. 48v): .ui.
      • Quire 8 (fol. 64v): .uiii.
      • Quire 9 (fol. 71v): .ix.
      • Quire 10 (fol. 79v): .x.
      • Quire 11 (fol. 87v): .xi.
      • Quire 12 (fol. 95v): .xii.
      • Quire 13 (fol. 103v): .xiii.
      • Quire 14 (fol. 111v): .xiiii.
      • Quire 15 (fol. 119v): .xu.
      • Quire 16 (fol. 127v): .xui.
      • Quire 17 (fol. 135v): .xuii.
      • Quire 18 (fol. 143v): .xuiii.
      • Quire 19 (fol. 151v): .xuiiii.

      Diagram: See diagrammatic representation of the quiring structure

      Condition: The manuscript is generally in excellent condition, though it was partly despoiled of its illustrations. Stephen Batman (1542-1584) added a bifolium at the beginning of the manuscript to supply the missing opening of Matthew's gospel (fol. iii). The vellum used was of good quality (though note the hole on fol. 124).

       

      Layout Description:

      1. Layout:

      • Layout type: LO14
      • Columns: 1
      • Written Lines: 26
      • Dimensions: 216mm x 110mm; ruled
      • Dimensions: 216mm x 17mm; gutter
      • Dimensions: 225mm x 115mm; written
      • Overview: Ruled in drypoint on hair side of parchment. Prickings in outer margin only (ca. 9 mm apart). Single bounding lines on both sides. Writing above top line. See diagram

      2. Layout:

      • Layout type: LO13
      • Columns: 2
      • Written Lines: 26
      • Locus: Fols 100v-100r
      • Dimensions: 204 x 55; first column
      • Dimensions: 204 x 8; gutter
      • Overview: The genealogy of Christ (Luke 3:23-38) and the remaining text on fol. 101r (Luke 4:1-4) is presented in two columns. See diagram.

      Hand Description

      Number of Hands: 4

      Summary: Original text in one main hand, insular minuscule s. xiin. Fols 1, 8 in an earlier square minuscule. Two documents were added on fol. 196v: one, a list of lands in English, by a scribe of s. xi/xii; the other, a Latin charter, by a scribe of s. xii1.

      Methods of Alteration: Corrected by various early-eleventh-century hands: one, using Caroline minuscule with occasional insular r, is found on fols 22r, 28r. These corrections are written on specially-ruled lines. A second hand is found on fols 33v, 41v, 145r. The correction on fol. 33v uses the chi-rho symbol as a signe-de-renvoi.

      Hand: Main 1

      Scope: major

      Script: English Vernacular Minuscule

      Description: Fols 2r-7v. and fols 8r-196r. 'Round' insular minuscule, early eleventh century.

      Summary of the characteristics of the hand:

      • a generally round; a Caroline form is sometimes used at the beginning of words.
      • Both tall and round-backed d are found.
      • e very often has a projecting tongue.
      • The tongue of f sits on the base line and is often disproportionately long.
      • The lower member of g begins at the right edge of the crossbar. The lower loop is often closed.
      • Uncial n sometimes used at the beginning of words.
      • q is proportionally larger than other letters, and the lobe is quite square.
      • Round, tall and low s used in all positions. Tall s is the least frequent form, but is often found in 'spiritus'.
      • The toe of t is often curled up, particularly at the end of words.
      • y is invariably straight limbed.
      • Ascenders have prominent wedges to the left.

      Punctuation: Punctuation by low, mid and high point only.

      Ligatures: st ligatures rare, but found at the beginning of words.

       

      Hand: Main 2

      Scope: major

      Script: English Vernacular Minuscule

      Description: Fol. 1r-v. and fol. 8r-v. Square minuscule, late tenth century.

      Summary of the characteristics of the hand:

      • a generally square; a Caroline form is sometimes used at the beginning of words. Alpha-shaped a and open-headed a also occur.
      • e has a prominent spur.
      • The lower member of g begins at the left edge of the crossbar. The lower loop is open.
      • Uncial n sometimes used at the end of words.
      • Round, tall and low s used in all positions. Low s is often split-topped.
      • There is often an oblique serif on the left-hand end of the crossbar of t.
      • y is round limbed.
      • Two forms of z; the regular Caroline form, and a form where the connecting stroke is extended dramatically beneath the base line.

      Ligatures: high e ligatures found regularly.

       

      Hand: Main 3

      Scope: minor

      Script: Anglo-Saxon Insular minuscule

      Description: Anglo-Saxon insular minuscule, s. xi/xii, preserving most insular letter forms. The small, tall script is written in a pale brown ink. Broken strokes have replaced curves. Word division is erratic.

      Summary of the characteristics of the hand: 

      • Uses insular æd, fgh, rþ and ƿ, but Caroline a and s.
      • The lower part of ȝ connects to the left-hand end of the cross-bar.
      • p has a rounder bowl than wynn.
      • Round-limbed y in which the lower member is also curved to the left.
      • þ has a slightly concave back.
      • Ascenders are finished with an angled serif.
      • Descenders are finished with an angled serif.

       

      Hand: Main 4

      Scope: minor

      Script: Caroline Minuscule

      Description: Caroline minuscule, s. xii1, in appearance rather similar to the contemporary script of Christ Church, Canterbury. Insular characters (æ and ð but also insular g) are used only in some Anglo-Saxon names.

      Summary of the characteristics of the hand:

      • p has a pronounced neck.
      • has a pronounced neck.
      • þ is used only in 'æþelburgae' (fol. 196v/10). It is a very tall letter, exceeding the height of the other ascenders.
      • ð is used only in 'edgiða'
      • Two forms of w.
      • Round-limbed y.
      • Ascenders are finished with angular serifs, which are sometimes lazily formed and appear split.
      • Descenders are finished with angular serifs which are sometimes lazily formed and appear split.

      Abbreviations: The common mark of abbreviation is finished with serifs at either end and set at an oblique angle.

      Decoration Description

      Three- or four-line plain red initials at the beginning of each gospel, with the first line of text in black majuscules. Two-line red initials at the beginning of text sections, and one-line black initials to signal subdivisions. Running titles (e. g. 'SECUNDUM LUCAM'), across openings. Ammonian sections in red and black in left hand margin.

      Additions

      Sixteenth-century: Bifolium (fols ii, iii) inserted by Stephen Batman (1542-1584). Fol. iii(r) carries the inscription 'Stephan batman the tru onor of thys | booke Which coste xx Nouum testa | menti Euangelium Dei Saxonice' and a miniature of an angel. Fol. iii(v) supplies the text missing from the mutilated fol. 1. Batman's script is partly imitative, and uses insular dgr and (sometimes) tall s.

      Binding Description

      Soft bound, s. xvii (?) in polished white leather. Sewn on three thongs. Remains of two pins on upper cover.

      Fols. i, 197 are modern paper flyleaves, contemporary with the binding. Fols. ii, iii are a vellum bifolium introduced into the manuscript by Batman.


      Additional Information

      Administration Information

      Described by Mark Faulkner (September 2009).

       

      Surrogates: 

      EM Project facsimile

      Saxl, F., and R. Wittkower, British Art and the Mediterranean (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1948), 21b (reduced facsimiles of fol. 93v)

      Temple, Elzbieta, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, 900-1066, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 2 (London: Harvey Miller, 1976), ills 177, 178 (reduced facsimiles of fols 93v, 146v)

      Wormald, Francis, English Drawings of the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries (London: Faber and Faber, 1952), reduced facsimiles of fols 93v and 146v


      History

      Origin

      Provenance: The records on fol. 196v are most likely to have been added at Barking Nunnery. The manuscript was purchased by Stephen Batman (1542-1584), as is evident from the inscription on fol. iii(r).

      Acquisition: Acquired by the Bodleian before 1602, probably from Sir Walter Cope (1553?-1614).

      Provenance

      Barking

      Bibliography

      Alexander, Jonathan, and others, eds., The York Gospels, Roxburghe Club (London, 1986), no. 14 (p. 44)

      Alexander, J. J. G., Anglo-Saxon Illumination in Oxford Libraries, Bodleian Library Picture Books Special Series, 1 (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1970), nos. 21, 22 (details of Ox. Bodl. 155)

      Backhouse, Janet, D. H. Turner, and Leslie Webster, The Golden Age of Anglo-Saxon Art, 966-1066 (London: British Museum for the Trustees of the British Museum and the British Library Board, 1984), no. 35 and pl.

      Exh., Latin Liturgical Manuscripts and Printed Books (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1952), no. 6 (details of Ox. Bodl. 155)

      Frere, Walter Howard, Studies in Early Roman Liturgy: II The Roman Lectionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1934), pp. 194-98

      Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001)

      Hart, C. R., 'An Early Charter of Adam of Cockfield, 1100-1118', English Historical Review, 72 (1957), 466-69

      ---, Early Charters of Essex: The Norman Period, Department of English Local History Occasional Papers (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1957), 25

      Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990)

      Madan, Falconer, and others, A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895-1953), no. 1974

      Ohlgren, Thomas H., Carl T. Berkhout, and William I. Bormann, Insular and Anglo-Saxon Illuminated Manuscripts: An Iconographic Catalogue, c. A.D. 625 to 1100, Garland reference library of the humanities, 631 (New York; London: Garland, 1986)

      Pächt, O., and J. J. G. Alexander, Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, 4 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966-1973), iii, no. 41 and pl. IV

      Temple, Elzbieta, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, 900-1066, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 2 (London: Harvey Miller, 1976), ills 177, 178 (reduced facs. of fols 93v, 146v), no. 59 (p. 78) and ills. 177, 178

      Wormald, Francis, English Drawings of the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries (London: Faber and Faber, 1952), no. 47 and pls. 5b, 7