Rochester, Cathedral Library, A. 3. 5

Present Location
Repository
Shelfmark

A. 3. 5

Contents
Date
Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

373

Summary

The manuscript consists of two parts, both of which were probably compiled during the time of Bishop Ernulf of Rochester (1115-24). Described within the category of 'legal encyclopaedia' by Wormald (1999), the first part of the manuscript contains mainly laws, genealogies and lists of popes, emperors, patriarchs, and English archbishops and bishops in Old English and some Latin items. Fols 58-80, 'Incipiunt quędam instituta de legibus regum anglorum' contain nine Old English glosses not in the main hand (see Liebermann 1903). The second part contains the cartulary of Rochester Cathedral Priory (Rochester: List of Estates Rochester: List of Serfs) in Latin and Old English, notes of the number of masses to be recited for members of English and Norman religious houses in confraternity with Rochester, and the catalogue of Rochester Cathedral Library (Ker 1957, p. 447).

Manuscript Items
  1. Item: fols 1r-3v
    • Title (B.14.1): Æthelberht

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 1r) Þis syndon þa domas þe æðelbirht cyning asette on agustinus dæge.

      Incipit: (fol. 1r) Godes feoh. ond ciricean

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  2. Item: fols 3v-5r
    • Title (B.14.2): Hlothære and Eadric

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 3v) Þis syndon þa domas ðe hloþhære ond eadric cantwara cyninges asetton

      Incipit: (fol. 3v) Hloþhære. ond eadric

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  3. Item: fols 5r-6v
    • Title (B.14.3): Wihtræd

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 5r) Đis synd ƿihtrædes domas cantwara cyninges

      Incipit: (fol. 5r) Đam mildestan cyninge

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  4. Item: fols 7r-v
    • Title (B.14.50): Hadbot

      Incipit: (fol. 7r) Seofonfealdegyfa syndan haliges gastes

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  5. Item: fols 7v-8v
    • Title (B.18.7.1.EM): Lists of Kings, Saints, and Bishops: West-Saxon Genealogy

      Incipit: (fol. 7v) Đa ƿæs agangen fram cristes accennednesse

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  6. Item: fols 9r-32r
    • Title (B.14.4): Alfred-Ine

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 9r) Þis syndon þa domas ðe ælfred cyncg geceas

      Incipit: (fol. 9r) Dryhten ƿæs sprecende ðas ƿord to moyse

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  7. Item: fols 32r-v
    • Title (B.14.33): Ordal

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 32r) Dom be haten isene. an ƿætter

      Incipit: (fol. 32r) And of þam ordale

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  8. Item: fol. 32v
    • Title (B.14.37): Walreaf

      Incipit: (fol. 32v) ƿalreaf is niðinges dæde

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  9. Item: fols 32v-37r
    • Title (B.14.9): II Æthelstan

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 32v) Æþelstanes gerænesse

      Incipit: (fol. 32v) Ærest þæt man ne sparige

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  10. Item: fols 37r-38r
    • Title (B.14.10): V Æthelstan Title (B.14.11): VI Æthelstan, 6.

      Incipit: (fol. 37r) Æðelstan cyng cyþ

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  11. Item: fol. 38r
    • Title (B.14.36): Pax

      Incipit: (fol. 38r) Đus feor sceal beon þæs cinges grið

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  12. Item: fols 38v-39v
    • Title (B.14.48): Mircna laga

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 38v) Hu se man sceal swerie

      Incipit: (fol. 38v) On ðone drihten

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  13. Item: fols 40r-41v
    • Title (B.14.6): Edward and Guthrum

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 40r) Þis syndon þa domas ðe ælfred cyncg ond guþrum cyncg gecuran

      Incipit: (fol. 40r) And þis is seo gerædnis eac

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  14. Item: fols 41v-42r
    • Title (B.14.38): Wer

      Incipit: (fol. 41v) Tƿelfhyndes mannes wer

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  15. Item: fols 42r-43r
    • Title (B.14.7.1.EM): I, II Eadweard: I

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 42r) Eadƿerdes gerænesse

      Incipit: (fol. 42r) Eadƿerd cyning byt ðam gerefum eallum

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  16. Item: fols 43r-44r
    • Title (B.14.7.2.EM): I, II Eadweard: II

      Incipit: (fol. 43r) Eadƿerd cyning myngode his ƿitan

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  17. Item: fols 44r-45r
    • Title (B.14.13): I Eadmund

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 44r) Eadmundes cyninges asetnysse

      Incipit: (fol. 44r) Eadmund cyning gesomnode mycelne sinoð

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  18. Item: fols 45r-46r
    • Title (B.14.14): II Eadmund

      Incipit: (fol. 45r) Eadmund czning cyð eallum folce

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  19. Item: fols 46r-47r
    • Title (B.14.20): I Æthelred

      Incipit: (fol. 46r) Đis is seo gerædnys ðe æþelred cyng

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  20. Item: fols 47r-47v
    • Title (B.14.57): William l Lad

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 47r) ƿillelmes cyninges asetnysse

      Incipit: (fol. 47r) ƿilhelm cyng gret ealle þa þe ðys geƿrit to cymð

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  21. Item: fols 48r-49v
    • Title (B.14.22): III Æthelred

      Incipit: (fol. 48r) Đis syndon þa laga þe æðelred cyng

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  22. Item: fols 49v-57r
    • Title: Jud. Dei i-iii

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 49v) Incipit exorcismus aque

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  23. Item: fol. 57v
    • Title: Item, Latin

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 57v) Cnud rex anglorum dedit ecclesie cristi brachium Sancti

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  24. Item: fols 58r-80r
    • Title: Instituta Cnuti

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 58r) Incipiunt quedam instituta de legibus regum anglorum

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 58r) Hec est institutio

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  25. Item: fols 80r-81v
    • Title: Articles of William

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 80r) Hic intimatur quid Willelmus rex anglorum cum principibus suis constituit. post conquisitionem anglie

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 80r) Inprimus

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  26. Item: fols 81v-87r
    • Title: Item

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 81v) Exceptiones ex decretis pontificum. quales accusatores accipiantur. et quales non recipiantur.

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 81v) Accusatores

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  27. Item: fols 88r-93r
    • Title (B.14.12): VI Æthelstan

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 88r) Iudicia ciuitatis lundonie

      Incipit: (fol. 88r) Đis is seo gerædnes þe þa biscopas

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  28. Item: fol. 93r-93v
    • Title (B.14.46): Geðyncðo

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 93r) Be leode geþincðum. ond lage

      Incipit: (fol. 93r) Hit ƿæs hƿilum on engla lagum

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  29. Item: fols 93v-94r
    • Title (B.14.47): Norðleoda laga

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 93r) Be ƿwergylde

      Incipit: (fol. 93r) Cynges ƿergild

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  30. Item: fols 94v-95r
    • Title (B.14.43): Wifmannes beweddung

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 94v) Be wifmannes beweddunge

      Incipit: (fol. 94v) Gif man mædan oððe ƿid ƿeddian ƿille

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  31. Item: fol. 95r
    • Title (B.23.1.6): Prose Charm

      Incipit: (fol. 95r) Gif feoh sy undernumen

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  32. Item: fols 95r-95v
    • Title (B.14.40): Hit becwæð

      Incipit: (fol. 95r) Hit becƿæð. ond becƿæl

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  33. Item: fols 96r-97v
    • Title: Henry I Coronation Charter

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 96r) Institutiones henrici regis

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 96r) Anno incarnationis dominici

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  34. Item: fols 98r-99v
    • Title: excommunication viii

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 98r) Excommunicatio

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 98r) Ex auctoritate dei

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  35. Item: fols 99v-100r
    • Title: Excommunication ix

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 99v) Excommunicatio

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 99v) Auctoritate dei

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  36. Item: fols 101r-v
    • Title (B.18.7.2.EM): Lists of Kings, Saints, and Bishops: List of Kings

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 101r) Đis ys angelcynnes cynecynn þe her gemearcod is.

      Incipit: (fol. 101r) Adam ƿæs se æresta man

      Explicit: (fol. 101v) Đa ƿæs æþelred. þa ƿæs eadƿord

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  37. Item: fols 102r-104r
    • Title (B.18.7.3.EM): Lists of Kings, Saints, and Bishops: West-Saxon Genealogy

      Incipit: (fol. 102r) Eadƿard. ond eadmund. ond æðelred æþelingas . syndon eadgares suna

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  38. Item: fols 105r-16r
    • Title (B.18.7.4.EM): Lists of Kings, Saints, and Bishops: Lists of Popes, Emperors, Patriarchs and English Archbishops and Bishops

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  39. Item: fol. 116v
    • Title: Lists of names, (a) 'uiginti quattor seniorum', (b) of popes responsible for introducing new forms of service into the liturgy, (c) 'septem archangelorum'

      Incipit (Latin): (fol. 116v) uiginti quattor seniorum

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  40. Item: fols 119r-222r
    • Title: Rochester Cathedral Cartulary

      Text Language: Latin

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373

  41. Item: fol. 222r-v
    • Title: Notes of the number of masses, etc., to be recited for members of English and Norman religious houses in confraternity with Rochester

      Text Language: English

      Bibliography:

      Ker 1957, item 373


Object Description

Form

Codex

Extent:

  • c. 225-230 mm x 150-155 mm (dimensions of all - size of leaves)
  • c. 170 mm x 95 mm (dimensions of all - size of written space)

Foliation/Pagination: Fols iv + 235 + i, foliated (i-iv), 1-235, (236)

Collation:

Quires: Fols i, 236 are parchment flyleaves of the date of binding. Fols ii-iv are post-medieval parchment flyleaves.

Collation of part A (fols 1-118): 18, 28 + 2 leaves after 3 (fols 12, 13), 38, 412 + 1 leaf after 5 (fol. 32), 58, 610, 7-88, 912 + 1 leaf after 11 and 1 leaf after 12 (fols 85, 87), 108, 118 wants 6-8, probably blank, after fol. 100, 128 wants 6 after fol. 105: the leaf was supplied in s. xii/xiii (fol. 106), 138, 142.

    Part B is mainly in eights: fols 164, 166 and 181 are supply leaves, s. xii, and fols 177-80, 193-4, 197, 203-8, 213, 217, 220, 230-5 are additions to the manuscript, mainly of s. xiiex. Note that, according to Wormald, most of the quires are self-contained, as a result of very careful design (1999, p. 247).

    Signatures: The quire signatures IX (fol. 47v), II (fol. 73v), IIII (fol. 95v) indicate that fols 40-57 (Quires 5, 6) came at the beginning and fols 58- 87 (Quires 7-9) at the end of part A. Other signatures in this part of the manuscript have been cut off, but traces remain on fols 65v, 87v, 95v. A new series begins with I on fol. 126v and runs to XII (fol. 229v).


    Hand Description

    Number of Hands: 2 in English

    Summary: The main text is written in the same hand throughout. The glosses to a Latin item (fols 58-80) are in a different hand.

    Hand: Main text

    Scope: Sole

    Scribe: 'Textus' scribe

    Script: Norman version of Caroline minuscule

    Description: fols 1-229. According to Parkes , 'the "Textus" scribe seems to have been influenced by an older Norman monk in his community'. His style is different to that of the other monks at Rochester, and he appears to be conscious of 'the principle of incorporating the cues for legibility in the construction of letter shapes', giving priority to legibility as opposed to convention (2008, pp. 101-2).

    Summary of the characteristics of the hand:

    • d is insular and regularly rounded in English, of the same size and shape as ð.
    • f is insular in English, formed with a very prominent approach stroke beginning well above minim height and the trace forming the headstroke commencing well below the top of the stem. Placed higher than usual, in the position of caroline f.
    • g is insular in English.
    • h is insular in English.
    • r is insular in English. The stem is formed with a very prominent approach stroke and terminates as a descender; the shoulder stroke is a longer, more prominent, complex broken stroke than in Latin and begins well below the top of the stem.
    • s the stem is formed with a very prominent approach stroke, beginning well above minim height, and the trace forming the headstroke commencing well below the top of the stem. Placed higher than usual, in the place of Caroline s. Round s occurs at the beginning of the manuscript.
    • þ the descender curves to the left.
    • y archaic f-shaped y occurs at the beginning of the manuscript.
    • ƿ the descender curves to the left.
    • Uncial occurs at the beginning of the manuscript.
    • descenders curve to the left iþ and ƿ, but not in r and p.
    • Mid-low position of the punctuation point is characteristic of the scribe.
    • ri and ru ligatures are not employed, avoiding the loss of the approach stroke to the minim at cue-height, aiding legibility.

    Other manuscripts: According to Parkes (2008, p. 246), other manuscripts in which the scribal hand appears are:

    • CCCC 332 (heading on fol. 1)
    • CUL Ff. 4. 32
    • CTC O. 2. 4 (1108) (part)
    • CTC O. 4. 7 (1238)
    • Eton College, 80
    • Royal 5 B. xii
    • Royal 5 C. i
    • Royal 6 A. iv
    • Royal 6 C. iv
    • Royal 8 D. xvi
    • Royal 12 C. i (table of contents)
    • Royal 15 D. xxii (ff. 110-17)
    • Lambeth Palace Library, 76 (ff. 1-147)
    • Bodley 134
    Decoration Description

    An elaborate initial begins the cartulary (fol. 119). Other initials are in red, green or purple (Ker 1957, p. 447).

    Additions

    Underlinings in red pencil, for example of 'Ælfuuine preostes sunu' (fol. 191) and 'Lamhetha' (fol. 197v) by Archbishop Parker. A note in Lambarde's hand on fol. 167v dated to 1573: (Ker 1957, p. 447).

    Binding Description

    Rebound in 1937.


    Additional Information

    Administration Information

    Manuscript described by Elaine Treharne with the assistance of Hollie Morgan and Thom Gobbitt (August 2010; September 2012).

    Surrogates:

    Sawyer, P. H., ed., Textus Roffensis: Rochester Cathedral Library Manuscript A.3.5, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1957)


    History

    Origin

    Written in Rochester in the 1120s but, according to Ker, 'the inscription 'Textus de ecclesia Roffensis per Ernulfum episcopum' (fol. 1) is of s. xiv and cannot be relied upon implicitly' (1957, p. 447).

    Provenance: Used by Archbishop Parker, and also by Lambarde for his Perambulation of Kent (1576).

    Provenance

    Rochester

    Bibliography

    Arnold, A. A., 'Preliminary Account of "Notes on the Textus Roffensis, by Dr. F. Liebermann"', Archaeologia Cantiana, xxiii (1898), 94

    Bond, E. A., and E. M. Thompson, eds, The Palaeographical Society: Facsimiles of Miniatures and Inscriptions (1873-83)

    Davis, G. R. C., Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain: A Short Catalogue (London: Longmans Green, 1958)

    Delisle, Léopold, 'Rouleau mortuaire de B. Vital. abbé de Savigny', Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, 70 (1909), 427-28

    Graham, Timothy, and Andrew G. Watson, The Recovery of the Past in Early Elizabethan England: Documents by John Bale and John Joscelyn from the Circle of Matthew Parker, Cambridge Bibliographical Society Monograph, 13 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 1998)

    Hearne, Thomas, ed., Textus Roffensis (1720)

    Ingram, J., ed., The Saxon Chronicle (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Browne, 1823)

    Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 373

    ---, English Manuscripts in the Century After the Norman Conquest, The Lyell Lectures, 1952-53 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960)

    Liebermann , F., 'De accusatoribus aus Ps.-Isidor', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Kirchenrecht, xi (1902)

    ---, ed., Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, 3 vols (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1903), vol. 1: Text und Übersetzung

    Ó Crónín, Dáibhí, 'A Seventh-Century Irish Computus from the Circle of Cummianus', Proceedings of the Royals Irish Academy, no. 82 C (1982), 405-30

    Parkes, Malcolm B., Their Hands Before Our Eyes: A Closer Look at Scribes (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008)

    Perceval, C. S., 'Remarks on an unpublished portion of a charter of King Ethelred, A.D. 1012 from the Textus Roffensis', Proceedings from the Society of Antiquaries, 2, no. 3 (1865), 47-50

    Richards, Mary P., Texts and their Traditions in the Medieval Library of Rochester Cathedral Priory, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 78:3 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988)

    Robertson, A. J, Anglo-Saxon Charters, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1939)

    Sawyer, P. H., ed., Textus Roffensis. Rochester Cathedral Library Manuscript A.3.5, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1957)

    Southern, R. W., 'Aspects of the European Tradition of Historical Writing 4: The Sense of the Past', Transactions of the Royal History Society, 5, no. 23 (1973), 243- 63, esp. p. 53

    Storms, G., ed., Anglo-Saxon Magic (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1948; repr. Folcroft, PA: Folcroft Library Editions, 1975)

    Wanley, Humfrey, Antique Literature Septentrionalis Liber Alter (Oxford: Sheldonian Theatre, 1705)

    Wormald, Patrick, The Making of English Law: From King Ælfred to the Twelfth Century (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999)

    Wright, T., and J. O. Halliwell, Reliquiæ Antiquæ, 2 vols (London: John Russel Smith, 1841-43)