Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 190

Present Location
Shelfmark

190

Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

45

Gnuess/Lapidge

59.5

Summary

A miscellany of ecclesiastical law and custom. 'Two probably distinct manuscripts', one in Latin mainly in s. xi1 with some OE notes and glosses, the other in English written mainly in s. ximed were bound together at an early date, at least before 1327, if not earlier (Ker 1957, p. 70).

The English part of the manuscript consists of 'an older nucleus' (Ker 1957, p. 71) of s. ximed, containing mainly letters of Ælfric to Wulfstan and two penitentials, to which some quires were added s. xi2.

The originally blank recto of the first leaf of Quire 6 and the blank space at the end of Quire 9 contain s. xi2 additions including a form of confession, 'Ic andette þe drihten ælmihtig god' and a form of absolution 'Gemyltsige eow se ælmihtiga god' (p. 365), two articles entitled 'Be mercena lage' (p. 418), and one article entitled 'Be gehádendra áðe. ˥ be hádbote' (p. 420).

The contents of the three quires added to the 'older nucleus' include Ælfric's letter to Wulfsige, bishop of Sherborne (pp. 295-308), one of Ælfric's homilies (pp. 315-19) and two sermons (pp. 351-53, 353-59), the Latin versions of which occur in the Latin section of the manuscript (Ker 1957, pp. 72-73).

Digital Surrogate

Manuscript Items
  1. Item: p. 17

     

    • Title (C.89.2): Gloss to Penitentials and Rules: Pseudo-Theodore

      Addition: (p. 17) se þe bið his fæder slaga

      Note: OE gloss; according to Ker, corresponding to the word 'parricidio' in the text of the 'Penitentialis egberti archiepiscopi'

      Bibliography: 

      Ker 1957, item 45

      Thorpe 1840

         

    • Item: p. 130

       

      • Title (B.23.1.4): Prose Charm: A charm for recovering stolen chattels

        Incipit: (p. 130) Gyf feoh sy underfangen

        Explicit: (p. 130) forþamhi hyt for helan ne mihtan

        Note: 'a charm to recover cattle' (Ker)

        Bibliography: 

        Ker 1957, item 45

        Storms 1948

        McBryde 1906

        Cockayne 1864-66

           

      • Item: p. 246

         

        • Title (C.82.2): Gloss to Liturgical Pieces: Text on ecclestiastical customs by Ælfric OSB, Hrabanus Maurus, Abbo of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and others

          Addition: (p. 246) on sƿate and ƿlitan ðines ðu sealt brucan hlafes ðines be heofygende synna ðine mid geðylde mycclon

          Note: 'interlinear glosses to the antiphon 'In sudore uultus tui' (Ker)

          Bibliography: 

          Ker 1957, item 45

          Fehr 1914, p. 247

             

        • Item: pp. 265-66

           

          • Title (C.15): Gloss to Defensor of Ligugé, Liber scintillarum (extracts)

            Addition: (p. 265) 'þurhbeorht' to 'perspicuus'

            Addition: (p. 266) 'fram þysre ƿorulde' to 'huic seculo'

            Addition: (p. 266) 'ascyred ƚ asyndrod' to 'discretus'.'

            Bibliography: 

            Ker 1957, item 45

            Rhodes 1889, pp. 22, 61

               

          • Item: p. 320

             

            • Title (B.1.8.2.1.EM): Ælfric Letters: Preface to his Old English Letters for Wulfstan

              Rubric (initial): (p. 320) Prologus uenerabilis aelfrici abbatis

              Rubric (medial): (p.320) Finit salutatio

              Incipit (Latin): (p. 320) Ælfricus abbas uulfstano uenerabili archiepiscopo

              Explicit (Latin): (p. 320) Uale feliciter inchristo

              Bibliography: 

              Ker 1957, item 45

              Wanley 1705, p. 22

              Fehr 1914, p. 68

                 

            • Item: pp. 320-36

               

              • Title (B.1.8.2): Ælfric, Letters: First Old English Letter for Wulfstan

                Rubric (initial): (p. 320) Hic incipit prima epistola anglice exposita

                Incipit: (p. 320) Us bisceopum gedafenaðþætƿe þa boclican lare

                Explicit: (p. 336) Ƿe biddað eoƿ preostas beoð þyses gemyndig þæs þe ge nu gehyrdonþætge habbanþæta mede þe ure hælend be het þam þe him þeniað.

                Colophon (Latin): (p.336) Euge serue boneetfidelis quiasuperpauca fuisti fidelis supra mlta teconstituam intra ingaudiumdominitui. Explixit prima epistola

                Bibliography: 

                Ker 1957, item 45

                Fehr 1914, p. 68

                Thorpe 1840, p. 364

                   

              • Item: pp. 336-37

                 

                • Title (B.1.8.3): Ælfric, Letters: Second Old English Letter for Wulfstan

                  Rubric (initial): (p. 336) Sequitur secunda epistola quando diuidiscrismam

                  Incipit: (p. 336) Eala ge mæssepreostas

                  Explicit: (p. 337) ond cƿæð þus min hus is gecƿeden gebedhus

                  Bibliography: 

                  Ker 1957, item 45

                  Fehr 1914, p.146

                  Thorpe 1840, p. 390

                     

                • Item: pp. 337-49

                   

                  • Title (B.1.8.3.1): Ælfric, Letters: Second Old English Letter for Wulfstan [second part]continued

                    Rubric (initial): (p. 337) Sermo in cenadominiet.VI.feriaetsabbato sanctoSaxonice

                    Incipit: (p. 337) In cenadominietinparasceueetinsancto sabbato. On þyssum þrym sƿigenihtum ge sceolan singan æt gædere

                    Explicit: (p. 349) ondþan haligum gaste on anrecodcundnisse hig ðri an god æfre ryxiende a ƿoruld. Amen

                    Bibliography: 

                    Ker 1957, item 45

                    Fehr 1914, p. 146

                       

                  • Item: pp. 349-50

                     

                    • Title (B.12.9): On the Mass: Celebration of Vigils

                      Rubric (initial): (p. 349) De officio missae in uiglia pascae

                      Incipit: (p. 349) On þone haligan easteræfen

                      Explicit: (p. 350) ondmid anrecollectanbeluce ða mæssanondcƿæðe

                      Colophon (Latin): (p. 350) Ite missa est Deo gratias

                      Bibliography: 

                      Ker 1957, item 45

                      Fehr 1914, p. 228

                         

                    • Item: p. 350

                       

                      • Title (B.12.9.1.EM): On the Mass: Celebration of Vigils [continuation] (continued)

                        Rubric (initial): (p. 350) De officio missae in uigilia pentecosten

                        Incipit: (p. 350) Ðonne on pentecostenes mæsseæfen

                        Explicit: (p. 350) ond þar æfter gengende eft binnan mid þrim fealdan letanian eal sƿa on æsteræfen

                        Bibliography: 

                        Ker 1957, item 45

                        Fehr 1914, p. 232

                           

                      • Item: pp. 366-84

                         

                        • Title (B.11.2.1): Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti: Additional sections printed by Spindler [sections a-y]

                          Rubric (initial): (p. 366) Her onginnað ðisse boce capitulas. ðe ƿe hatað scriftboc

                          Incipit: (p. 366) Þas capitulas ecgbyrhti arcebisceop on eoferƿic aƿende ofledene on englisc þæt ungelæredan hit mihton þe eð understandan

                          Explicit: (p. 384) Se þe forfeadne man fæsteð hit bið him sylfum frofor gif hit þam deadan ne hylpð god ana ƿat hƿæt his deadan gegæþ

                          Bibliography: 

                          Ker 1957, item 45

                          Thorpe 1840, p. 128

                          Berbner 1907, p. 11

                             

                        • Item: p. 384

                           

                          • Title (B.10.4.2.1.EM): Chrodegang of Metz, Regula Canonicorum [Chapter 83]

                            Incipit: (p. 384) Sanctus siluester cƿæð ne sceal nan acolitus

                            Explicit: (p. 384) ondne mæg man nanne diacon ge ƿægnigan butan .XXXVI. sumondmæsrepreost .XLIIII. sum.

                            Bibliography: 

                            Ker 1957, item 45

                            Spindler 1934, p. 190

                            Thorpe 1840, p. 166

                            Napier 1916, p. 97

                               

                          • Item: pp. 384-86

                             

                            • Title (B.11.2.1.1.EM): Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti: Additional sections printed by Spindler [sections a-y] [extract]

                              Incipit: (p. 384) Þeodorus se mæra bisceop

                              Explicit: (p. 386) Þætis on fæstenumondon ƿæcceumondon gebedumondon halsungum to gode mid heortan onbryrdnysseondmid teara agotennysse

                              Bibliography: 

                              Ker 1957, item 45

                              Spindler 1934, p. 172

                                 

                            • Item: pp. 387-413

                               

                              • Title (B.11.2.1.2.EM): Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti: Additional sections printed by Spindler [sections a-y] [extract]

                                Incipit: (p. 387) Her onginð se forme capitul

                                Explicit: (p. 413) Gif he ƿyle mid soþre godes lufe him sylfum þingian

                                Bibliography: 

                                Ker 1957, item 45

                                Raith 1933

                                Thorpe 1840 pp. 170-222

                                Berbner 1907, p. 18

                                Schmitz 1898

                                   

                              • Item: pp. 413-14

                                 

                                • Title (B.11.2.2): Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti: Additional sections printed by Spindler [section z] [extract]

                                  Incipit: (p. 413) on halgum geƿritum ys gerædd

                                  Explicit: (p. 414) Seo tƿelfte sor gy fennys ys martir had sƿa þam sceaþan ƿearð ær drihtnes þroƿunge þu se hælendhimto cƿæð soð isþætic þe secge nu to dæg þu byst mid me onmines fæder rice

                                  Bibliography: 

                                  Ker 1957, item 45

                                  Thorpe 1840, p. 222-24

                                  Spindler 1934, p. 174

                                     

                                • Item: pp. 414-16

                                   

                                  • Title (B.11.10.1): Formulas and Directions for the Use of Confessors

                                    Incipit: (p. 414) Ðys syndon þa godcundan bebodu

                                    Explicit: (p. 416) Ic þe þonne mindrhiteneaðmodlice biddeþætþu me forgyfeþætic þæs bidde þæs þe þin ƿilla sigondminre saƿle ræd on ecnysseondmines ƿorldlifes bletsung anstande

                                    Bibliography: 

                                    Ker 1957, item 45

                                    Thorpe 1840, p. 224-28

                                    Berbner 1907, p. 25

                                       

                                  • Item: pp. 416-18

                                     

                                    • Title (B.11.5.3.EM): Poenitentiale Theodori and Capitula d'Acheriana [partial]

                                      Incipit: (p. 416) Gif hƿa sƿereð on bisceopes handa

                                      Explicit: (p. 418) Gif he þurh un nytte ceaste-man ofslea

                                      Colophon: (p. 418) Fæste . X. gear.

                                      Bibliography: 

                                      Ker 1957, item 45

                                      Thorpe 1840, p. 228-30

                                      Berbner 1907, p. 26

                                         

                                    • Item: p. 365

                                       

                                      • Title (B.11.9.1): Forms of Confession and Absolution

                                        Incipit: (p. 365) Ic andette þe drihten ælmihtig god

                                        Explicit: (p. 365) Gemyltsige eoƿ se ælmihtiga god ond forgife eoƿ ealle eoƿre synnaondalyse eoƿ fram eallum yfelum dædum ond gehealde eoƿ fram synnum ond gelæde us crist þæs lifiendan godes sunu into þam ecean life. amen.

                                        Note: Form of absolution transcribed in full as explicit

                                        Bibliography: 

                                        Ker 1957, item 45

                                        Förster 1942, p. 14

                                        Wanley 1705, p. 111

                                           

                                      • Item: pp. 418-20

                                         

                                        • Title (B.14.48): Mircna laga

                                           

                                          Title (B.14.49): Að

                                           

                                          Title (B.14.50): Hadbot

                                          Rubric (initial): (p. 418) Be gehadendra aðe ˥ be hádbote

                                          Incipit: (p. 419) Mæssepreostes aðondƿoruldþegnes

                                          Explicit: (p. 420) ond ƿise ƿæron ƿorldƿitan þe to godcundan rihtlagan þas laga seton folce for steore ond halidom ond hada for godes lufan ƿurðodo ond godes hus ond godes þeoƿas deoplice griðedon

                                          Bibliography: 

                                          Ker 1957, item 45

                                          Liebermann 1903, pp. 462-64

                                             

                                        • Item: pp. 295-308

                                           

                                          • Title (B.1.8.1): Ælfric, Letters: Letter to Wulfsige

                                            Rubric (initial): (p. 295) Be preoste synoðe

                                            Incipit: (p. 295) Ic secge eoƿpreostumþætic sylf nelle beran

                                            Explicit: (p. 308) God ge unne eoƿþætge hit moton sƿa aredigan sƿa eoƿer þearf sy.

                                            Bibliography: 

                                            Ker 1957, item 45

                                            Fehr 1914

                                            Thorpe 1840, p. 342 and p. 358

                                               

                                          • Item: pp. 308-14

                                             

                                            • Title (B.1.2.45): Ælfric, Second Series of Homilies [Catholic Homilies II]: Apostles

                                              Rubric (initial): (p.308) Sequentia Sancti Euuangelii secundum Lucam

                                              Incipit (Latin): (p. 308) In illo tempore designauit dominus et alios

                                              Incipit: (p. 308) Se hælend geceas hit to eacan

                                              Explicit: (p. 314) Sy him aƿuldor ond lof ealra his ƿel dæda. Amen.

                                              Bibliography: 

                                              Ker 1957, item 45

                                              Thorpe 1844-46, p. 528

                                                 

                                            • Item: pp. 314-19

                                               

                                              • Title (B.13.3): De ecclestiasticis gradibus

                                                Rubric (initial): (p. 314) De eclesiasticis gradibus

                                                Incipit: (p. 314) Heah hadas sindon to healdenne

                                                Explicit: (p. 319) Se god þe ealle þing don mæg ond ealra þinga geƿeald ah helpe ureondgefylste usþætƿe magon ond moton his ƿyllan geƿyrcean. Amen.

                                                Bibliography: 

                                                Ker 1957, item 45

                                                   

                                              • Item: pp. 351-53

                                                 

                                                • Title (B.3.2.9): Anonymous Homilies, Homilies for Specified Occasions, Temporale: Ash Wednesday

                                                  Rubric (initial): (p. 351) Sermo in capite ieiunii ad populum

                                                  Incipit (Latin): (p. 351) Audite fratres karissimi

                                                  Incipit: (p. 351) Gehirað broðru þa leofestan ƿe mynegiað eoƿ ealle gemænlice

                                                  Explicit: (p. 353) To ðæra geferræddene us eac gebringe crist se ðe leofað ond rixiað mid his efenecan fæder ond þam halgangaste on ealra ƿorulda ƿoruld. amen.

                                                  Bibliography: 

                                                  Ker 1957, item 45

                                                  Fehr 1914, p. 247

                                                     

                                                • Item: pp. 353-59

                                                   

                                                  • Title (B.3.2.23): Anonymous Homilies, Homilies for Specified Occasions, Temporale: In Cena Domini

                                                    Rubric (initial): (p. 353) Sermo in cenadominiad penitentes

                                                    Incipit (Latin): (p. 354) Uerefratreskarissimihoc debetis scire

                                                    Incipit: (p. 354) Mine gebroðru ða leofestan ge sculon to soðon ðis ƿitan

                                                    Explicit: (p. 359) Ðæs eoƿ geunne se mildheorta drihten þe leofað ond rixað on ealra ƿorulda ƿoruld amen.

                                                    Bibliography: 

                                                    Ker 1957, item 45


                                                  Object Description

                                                  Form

                                                  Form: Codex

                                                  Support: Large size book. Parchment generally in good condition; seems well used if limpness at corners is an indication. Fols iii + 153 + 64 + iv. Two unnumbered paper leaves at each end are of the date of binding. Pages i, ii are medieval parchment flyleaves.

                                                  Extent:

                                                  c. 288 mm x 185 mm (dimensions of all - size of leaves)

                                                  230-220 mm x 132 mm (dimensions of all - size of written space)

                                                  Collation

                                                  Quires: Collation of part B (pp. 295-420): 14, 2-48, 58 wants 7, probably blank, after p. 362, 6-88, 96 wants 6, probably blank, after p. 420.

                                                  Layout Description: Generous interlinear space. 28 long lines (27 lines on pp. 303-18; 25 lines on pp. 351-64). Blind ruled with double vertical bounding lines and single lines at first and last of horizontal axis.


                                                  Hand Description

                                                  Number of Hands: 1 main hand from 1060 to 1220, but a number of others also contributed to this set of legal, homiletic and pastoral texts. The main hand is described here.

                                                  Summary: The additions of s. xi2 (pp. 130, 295-319, 351-59, 360, 365, 418-20) are 'mainly in one hand of "Exeter" type' (Ker 1957, p. 73).

                                                  • Hand: pp. 418-20, 295-359
                                                  • Scope: Major
                                                  • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule I
                                                  • Ker reference: Ker 45 Gneuss G59.5
                                                  • Description: pp. 418-20, 295-359. Very like the hand in CCCC 421, pp. 3-96, 209-24 (Ker 1957, p. 73). Script is familiar Exeter style with rounded letter forms. Black ink and often suedey parchment. Very few interventions in Old English section of s. xi2. All insular forms in OE. Interesting spellings ('wirhtan', p. 309). Can easily be read from 1 metre away.
                                                  • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                    • Long ascenders, split, with elaborate flags to left and right
                                                    • Less long descenders (than ascenders), many curving to left
                                                    • e of æ slightly higher than e
                                                    • Very low rounded d, sometimes finished with a little curved flick upwards
                                                    • Occasional horned e
                                                    • f with crossbar longer than headstroke, flat on line, curved descender
                                                    • with sweeping and closed tail that emerges from the far left of headstroke
                                                    • i used almost indifferently to yi is often altered to y in the text of the sermons (pp. 351-59)
                                                    • Long s with notable onset stroke and sweep to leftward curve at tail-end. Also low s. End of long s sometimes curls round at top
                                                    • ð distinctively hooked downwards at end. Cross-stroke through ascender with flagged flick up to the left at the end. Double ð has one long cross-stroke
                                                    • Straight limbed with dot. y used almost indifferently to i
                                                    • No offset initials
                                                    • Coloured enlarged initials, and coloured in-fill of some initials and notae occasionally (e.g., p. 314)
                                                    • Accents at 45 degrees, with blob at end, often slightly high. Occasional use of c-shaped accent (might be added?); e.g., p. 309. accents a total of about 80 c-shaped accents over short vowels are to be found in this hand.
                                                  • PunctuationPunctus low on line. Punctus versus and interrogativus. Hyphens used-the latter low and flat at both end of line and beginning of next.
                                                  • Abbreviations: Few abbreviations and indicated with flat macron curving slightly upwards to left and downwards to right. Abbreviations notable include b with line through it for 'biscop'. 90 degrees ˥ descends below line.
                                                  Decoration Description

                                                  Initials in blue, red and green. Titles in red rustic capitals.

                                                  Binding Description

                                                  Rebound in 1953; the previous binding was eighteenth-century.


                                                  Additional Information

                                                  Administration Information

                                                  Manuscript described by Elaine Treharne with the assistance of Hollie Morgan, Owen Roberson and Johanna Green (2010; 2013). Bibliography updated by Georgia Henley (2018).

                                                  Surrogates

                                                  Digital surrogate: https://parker.stanford.edu/parker/catalog/dm156pk7342 (accessed 18 July 2018)


                                                  History

                                                  Origin

                                                  Origin: According to Ker 1957 (p. 73) the script suggests that the first part of the manuscript was added to in Exeter, and the part containing English was written there. The two parts were probably combined in s. xi.

                                                  Provenance: The two parts may be the 'canon on leden 7 scriftboc on englisc' that Bishop Leofric (d. 1072) gave to Exeter (Chambers 1933, p. 27). The whole manuscript is certainly the 'Penitentiale uetus et alia plura cum anglico in fine quod sic incipit In principio prec' xij d' in the Exeter catalogue of 1327 (Oliver 1861, p. 309). A note by Parker on fol. 111 of BL Harley 3013 refers to it as a book of the Church of Exeter.

                                                  Acquisition: In the list of manuscripts bequeathed by Archbishop Parker to Corpus Christi College (Wanley 1705, p. 110).

                                                  Provenance

                                                  Exeter

                                                  Bibliography

                                                  Bateson, Mary, 'A Worcester Cathedral Book of Ecclesiastical Collections', English Historical Review, 10 (1895), 715

                                                  Berbner, W., Sprache und Heimat des altenglischen 'Scriftboc' im Ms. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 190 (Bonn: P. Hanstein's, 1907)

                                                  Bethurum, Dorothy, 'Archbishop Wulfstan's Commonplace-book', Publications of the Modern Languages Association, 57 (1942), 916-29

                                                  Chambers, R. W. , ed., The Exeter Book and Its Donor Leofric, The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933)

                                                  Cockayne, Oswald, Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Being a Collection of Documents for the most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Science in this Country before the Norman Conquest, Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores 35, 3 vols (London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1864-66; repr. Wiesbaden: Kraus, 1965)

                                                  D'Achéry, Spicilegium Sive Collectio Veterum Aliquot Scriptorum (Paris, 1723)

                                                  Di Sciacca, Claudia, 'An unpublished ubi sunt piece in Wulfstan's €œCommonplace Book€ù: Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 190, pp. 94-96', in Form and Content of Instruction in Anglo-Saxon England in the Light of Contemporary Manuscript Evidence: Papers Presented at the International Conference Udine, 6-8 April 2006, ed. Patrizia Ledinaria, Textes et études du Moyen Age, 39 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), pp. 217-50

                                                  Elliot, Michael D., 'Wulfstan's Commonplace Book revised: the structure and development of €œblock 7€ù, on pastoral privilege and responsibility', Journal of Medieval Latin, 22 (2012), 1-48

                                                  Fehr, Bernard, ed., Die Hirtenbriefe Ælfrics, Bibliothek der angelsæchsicschen Prosa, 9 (Hamburg: Henri Grand, 1914; repr. with a supplement to the introduction by Peter Clemoes, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1966)

                                                  Förster, Max, 'Zur Liturgik der angelsæchsischen Kirche: III. Ein ae. Apostelgebet', Anglia, 66 (1942), 48-49

                                                  Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001), item 59.5

                                                  Hall, Thomas N., 'Wulfstan's Latin Sermons', in Wulfstan, Archbishop of York: The Proceedings of the Second Alcuin Conference, ed. Matthew Townend, Studies in the Early Middle Ages, 10 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 93-139

                                                  Hill, Joyce, 'Two Anglo-Saxon bishops at work: Wulfstan, Leofric and Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS 190', Patterns of Episcopal Power: Bishops in Tenth- and Eleventh-Century Western Europe / Strukturen bischöflicher Herrschaftsgewalt im westlichen Europa des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts, ed. Ludger Körntgen, Prinz-Albert-Forschungen, 6 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011), pp. 145-61

                                                  James, Montague Rhodes, Matthew Parker, and A. Rogers, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912)

                                                  Jones, Christopher A., 'A liturgical miscellany in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 190', Traditio, 54 (1999), 103-40

                                                  Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 45

                                                  Liebermann, F., ed., Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, 3 vols (Tæbingen: Niemeyer, 1903), I: Text und Ãœbersetzung

                                                  Lucas, Peter J., 'William Retchford, pupil of Abraham Wheelock in Anglo-Saxon: €œhe understands the Saxon as well as myself€ù', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 12:4 (2003), 335-61

                                                  McBryde, J. M, 'Charms to Recover Stole Cattle', Modern Language Notes, 21 (1906), 180

                                                  Napier, Arthur S., ed., The Old English Version of the Enlarged Rule of Chrodegang together with the Latin Original; An Old English Version of the Capitula of Theodulf together with the Latin Original; An Interlinear Old English Rendering of the Epitome of Benedict of Aniane, EETS, OS 150 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Træbner, 1916)

                                                  Oliver, George, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter: And a History of the Cathedral (Exeter: Roberts, 1861)

                                                  Raith, Joseph, ed., Die altenglische Version des Halitgar'schen Bussbuches, Bibliothek der angelsæchsischen Prosa, 13 (Hamburg: H. Grand, 1933)

                                                  Rhodes, E. W., Defensor's Liber Scintillarum, EETS, 93 (Træbner, 1889)

                                                  Scragg, Donald, Alexander Rumble, and Kathryn Powell, C11 Database Project (Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, http://www.arts.manchester.ac.uk/mancass/c11database/; accessed in 2009)

                                                  Schmitz, H. J., ed., Die Bußbæcher (Dæsseldorf, 1898)

                                                  Spindler, Robert, ed., Das altenglische Bussbuch (Sog. Confessionale Pseudo- Egberti) (Liepzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1934)

                                                  Storms, G., ed., Anglo-Saxon Magic (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1948; repr. Folcroft, PA: Folcroft Library Editions, 1975)

                                                  Thorpe, B., ed., Ancient Laws and Institutes of England (London: George Eyre and Andrew Spottiswoode, 1840)

                                                  Wanley, Humfrey, Antique literature septentrionalis liber alter (Oxford: Sheldonian Theatre, 1705)