Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 191

Present Location


Medieval Provenance

General Information






A bilingual copy, in Latin and English, of the enlarged version of Regula Canonicorum by Chrodegang, bishop of Metz (742-66). Written by one scribe at Exeter in the eleventh century, from an exemplar from Winchester. Each Latin chapter of the text is followed by an English translation.

Digital Surrogate

Manuscript Items


  1. Itempp. 1/1-2/6


    • Title: Untitled preface to Chrodegang of Metz, Regula Canonicorum

      Title (manuscript): (p. 1/1-2) De ordine canonicorum. Martilogium. liber utilis exceptis omnibus expositionibus in anglico

      Incipit (Latin): (p. 1/4-6) SI TRECENTORUM DECEM ET | OCTO RELIQVORUM SANCTORUM PATRVM | canonum auctoritas inuiolata.

      Text Language: Latin

      Hand: The manuscript title is added at top margin by a thirteenth century hand.


      Parker Library on the Web

      Graham 2003

      Ker 1957


    • Itemp. 2/7-27


      • Title (B. Chrodegang of Metz, Regula Canonicorum: Preface

        Incipit(p. 2/7-8) Gif þæra þreo hundred 7 eahta tyne fædra þe | wæron gesamnode on þam sinoðe þe ƿe nicena nemnað

        Explicit(p. 2/27) to myrhðe geladan gif we willað ure yflu gebeaten. Ges.

        Text Language: English

        Note: Abrupt ending due to the loss of the following page. Current pp. 3-4 was inserted in the sixteenth-century.


        Parker Library on the Web

        Graham 2003

        Ker 1957


      • Itempp. 5/1-7/16


      • Itempp. 7/18-11/23


        • Title (B. Chrodegang of Metz, Regula Canonicorum: Chapter list

          IncipitBe eadmodnysse

          Explicit: Be þam þæt preostas hi ƿarnien ƿyð þa scinlacan hiƿinga | deofla prettes.

          Text Language: English

          Note: A strip with Parkerian transcription and Weelock's corrections is now between p. 8 and p. 9. It was originally pasted to the upper area of p. 8.


          Parker Library on the Web

          Graham 2003

          Ker 1957


        • Itempp. 11/24-169/17


          • Title (B.10.4.1): Chrodegang of Metz, Regula Canonicorum

            Incipit (Latin): (p. 11/24-25) .I. DE HUMILITATE. | Clamat nobis diuina scriptura dicens

            Incipit(p. 12/19-20) .I. Be eaðmodnysse . | Vs clipað þæt halige geƿwrit. 7 þus cƿyð to us

            Explicit(p. 169/15-17) þa ageat openlice se earma | bearn lea sa ceorl hƿæne he under feneg . oððe | hƿæne se biscop ut hæfde adræfed.

            Text Language: Latin and English; each chapter in Latin is followed by a translation into English.

            Other versions of the text:



            EM Project facsimile, CCCC 191, p. 26

            Parker Library on the Web

            Graham 2003

            Ker 1957

            Napier 1916

          Object Description


          Form: Codex

          Support: The manuscript was written on leaves of parchment of rough preparation. Modern paper flyleaves. Graham 2003 notes that the 'brownish' leaves are 'often grainy and scaly' and remarks upon the number of original holes present in the volume. Leaf ordering is HFHF (p. 43).

          Extent: pp. 1-169 (Dimensions given below are approximate for some leaves due to subsequent damage.)

          288 mm x 177 mm (dimensions of most - size of leaves)

          223 mm x 102 mm (dimensions of most - size of written space)

          Foliation/Pagination: Pagination written in upper right corner of verso leaves in Parkerian red crayon.



          • 12 leaves: twentieth-century paper flyleaves.
          • i, ii are pastedown and flyleaf from the earlier binding.
          • iii is part of old paper flyleaf, now attached on a new paper leaf.
          • Quire 18 (pp. 1-16), wants 2, replaced by sixteenth-century leaf with note; sixteenth-century repair strips containing fragments of 3 and 4, now pasted to twentieth-century leaves, inserted between pp. 4 and 5, and pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 8 and 9. See the diagram of Quire 1.
          • Quires 2-68 (pp. 17-96);
          • Quire 78 (pp. 97-112, the third (pp. 101-02) and the sixth (pp. 107-08) leaves are singletons);
          • Quires 8-108 (pp. 113-160);
          • Quire 115 (pp. 61-70, the fifth leaf (pp. 69-70) is singleton). 1
          • 2 leaves: twentieth-century paper endleaves. 

          Condition: The first quire of the manuscript has been extensively damaged. Leaves in this quire have suffered from rot and staining (Graham 2003, p. 44). Some text from the preface and table of chapters has been lost. The manuscript has been repaired in both the sixteenth and twentieth centuries.

          Layout Description

          • Columns: 1
          • Written Lines: 27
          • Locus: pp. 1-169
          • Overview: Drypoint ruled throughout in one column of 27 lines. Pricking occurs only in the outer margin of each leaf, visible in Quires 1-4. The hair sides are ruled, with pairs of vertical bounding lines at each side of the column and two horizontal rule-lines each at top and bottom of each leaf extending across the page, or to the prick on quires where pricks are still present (Graham 2003, p. 43). See LO11.

          Hand Description

          Summary: The colour of the ink and letter size greatly vary, and Ker 1957 suggests that the manuscript was 'possibly' copied by two scribes. It is, however, more likely to have been copied by a single hand.

          Hand: Major

          • Scope: Sole
          • Script: Caroline Minuscule and Anglo-Saxon Insular minuscule
          • Description: pp. 1-169. Scribe 2 of Drage 1978. See EM Project facsimile p. 26.
          • Summary of the characteristics of the hand: Insular minuscule used for Old English. Small, round and neat upright script of the 'Exeter' type.
            • æe is the same height as a;
            • the bow of d is round. The ascender of its insular form is at 45 degrees and very short;
            • e with a straight back sometimes has a horn and a tongue;
            • Insular f;
            • Insular g: the upper bow is larger than the lower bow. It is in the shape of an unfinished '8', with the right hand side of the upper bow being open;
            • Insular h;
            • minims usually have feet to the upper right (but sometimes finish without serifs);
            • both low and long s are used;
            • the descender of þ is often shorter than the height of the body of the letter. It sometimes has a foot, sometimes not. The bowl is on the writing line;
            • ð is high. Its ascender inclines at about 45 degrees and tagged to the left at the top. The ascender of ð is about 45 degrees, but does not extend more than the height of other ascenders. The crossbar does not transect; it extends only to the right of the ascender, and turns upwards at the end;
            • ascenders are slightly longer than the height of the body of the letter. The split of ascenders in insular form is not very deep; the ascenders of Caroline form have wedges of about the same height as those of insular letters;
            • descenders of insular letters are short and taper straight, or their ends turn to the left (except p).  
          Decoration Description

          Old English headings are red and in the script of the hand of the main text. Initials are coloured red, blue or green (Ker 1957, pp. 74-5). Usually every second initial is in red, while the intervening initials alternate between green and blue (Graham 2003, p. 44).


          Under Parker, the damaged first leaves were repaired using strips cut from an account roll similar to that which makes up two front endleaves, s. xvi1. Parkerian entries on these strips include pagination in red crayon and transcriptions from damaged parts of some of the chapter titles including one from the Old English list. In place of the lost second leaf of the Quire 1 is a sixteenth-century vellum leaf with a note by Parker commenting on the loss of the chapter titles the original leaf contained. Pasted to the modern paper endleaf that precedes p. 1 are two sixteenth-century strips that were pasted to p. 1. One contains the former Corpus press-mark ('S. 12') and the other contains a Parkerian note commenting that the reference to 318 canons of the holy fathers at the start of Chrodegang's preface refers to the 318 bishops that attended the Council of Nicea (Graham 2003, p. 45).

          Binding Description

          At one time the manuscript was bound with CCCC 201 and CCCC 196. By 1327 CCCC 196 had become detached, as it is listed as a separate item in the Exeter ibrary catalogue. The manuscript was sent for rebinding between 18th and 23rd August 1748 (Graham 2003, pp. 41-43). Rebound at the British Museum in 1926. Full binding in 'blue Levant morocco leather over millboards'. Rosette stamps on the inside surfaces of the covers (Graham 2003, p. 45).

          Endleaves are twentieth-century paper and sixteenth-century vellum (Graham 2003, p. 45).

          Additional Information

          Administration Information

          Manuscript described by William Green and Takako Kato with the assistance of Hollie Morgan (2010). Bibliography updated by Georgia Henley (2018).


          Digital surrogate: (accessed 18 July 2018)

          EM Project facsimile

          Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile, 1 (Tempe, AZ: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 2003), vol. 1: Corpus Christi College, Cambridge I: MSS 41, 57, 191, 302, 303, 367, 383, 422; microfiche

          Bishop, T. A. M., and Albinia Catherine De la Mare, English Caroline Minuscule, Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), pl. XXIV; black and white facsimile

          Napier, Arthur S., ed., The Old English Version of the Enlarged Rule of Chrodegang together with the Latin Original; and An Old English Version of the Capitula of Theodulf together with the Latin Original; An Interlinear Old English Rendering of the Epitome of Benedict of Aniane, EETS, OS 150 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Træbner, 1916); black and white facsimile

          Robinson, Pamela R., Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 737-1600 in Cambridge Libraries, 2 vols (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1988), pl. 24; black and white facsimile



          Origin: Written by a scribe who was active at Exeter during the Episcopate of Leofric (1050-1072). The manuscript is believed to be the Regula canonicorum listed in a document cataloguing the material Leofric provided for Exeter, copies of which list are included in the Exeter Book (see the description of CUL Ii. 2. 11) and in Auct. D. 2. 16 (Graham 2003Ker 1957).

          Provenance: Bound at one time with CCCC 201 and CCCC 196 (Graham 2003). It was at Exeter until at least s. xiv3/4, evidenced by notes written by John of Grandisson, bishop of Exeter.

          Acquisition: Acquired by Parker during his term as archbishop of Canterbury (Graham 2003).




          Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Stanford University, Parker Library on the Web (; accessed in 2010)

          The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile, R. W. Chambers, Max Förster and Robin Flower (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933)

          Blake, D. W., 'The Development of the Chapter of the Diocese of Exeter, 1050-1161', Journal of Medieval History, 8 (1982), 1-11

          Birch, Walter de Gray, ed., Liber Vitae of New Minster and Hyde Abbey Winchester, Hampshire Record Society (London: Simpkin, 1892)

          Bishop, Terence Alan Martyn, 'Notes on Cambridge Manuscripts, Part III: MSS. Connected with Exeter', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 2.2 (1955), 192-99

          ---, and Albinia Catherine De la Mare, English Caroline Minuscule, Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971)

          Budny, Mildred, Insular, Anglo-Saxon, and Early Anglo-Norman Manuscript Art at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge: An Illustrated Catalogue, 2 vols (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications Western Michigan University in Association with Research Group on Manuscript Evidence the Parker Library Corpus Christi College Cambridge, 1997), I

          Caie, G. D., ed., The Old English Poem 'Judgement Day II': A Critical Edition with Editions of 'De die iudicii' and the Hatton 113 Homily 'Be domes dæge', Anglo-Saxon Texts, 2 (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2000)

          Dickins, Bruce, 'The Making of the Parker Library', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 6 (1972), 19-34

          Drage, E., 'Bishop Leofric and the Exeter Cathedral Chapter, 1050-1072: A Reassessment of the Manuscript Evidence' (unpublished D. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 1978)

          Drout, Michael D. C., 'Re-dating the Old English translation of the enlarged rule of Chrodegang: the evidence of the prose style', Journal of English and Germanic Philology 103: 3 (2004) 341-38

          Dumville, D. N., English Caroline Script and Monastic History: Studies in Benedictinism, A.D. 950-1030, Studies in Anglo-Saxon History, 6 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1993)

          Förster, Max, 'Lokalisierung und Datierung der altenglischen Version der Chrodegang-Regel', Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse (1933), Sitzungen, 7-8 

          Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001), item 60

          ---, 'A Preliminary List of Manuscripts Written or Owned in England up to 1100', Anglo-Saxon England, 9 (1981), 1-60

          Graham, Timothy, 'Cambridge, Corpus Christ College 191: Chrodegang of Metz, "Regula canonicorum" (enlarged version)', in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile, 11: Corpus Christi College, Cambridge I: MSS 41, 57, 191, 302, 303, 367, 383, 422 (Tempe, AZ: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 2003), pp. 39-47

          ---, 'John Joscelyn, Pioneer of Old English Lexicography', in The Recovery of Old English: Anglo-Saxon Studies in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, ed. Timothy Graham (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000), pp. 83-140

          James, Montague Rhodes, Matthew Parker, and A. Rogers, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912)

          Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 46

          ---, and Andrew G. Watson, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks, 3 (2nd edn, 1964; London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 2nd edn, 1987)

          Langefeld, Brigitte, ed., The Old English Version of the Enlarged Rule of Chrodegang: Edited Together with the Latin Text and an English Translation, Texte und Untersuchungen zur englischen Philologie, 26 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2003)

          Lucas, Peter J., 'William Retchford, Pupil of Abraham Wheelock in Anglo-Saxon: "He Understands the Saxon as well as myself"', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 12:4 (2003), 335-61

          Napier, Arthur S., ed., The Old English Version of the Enlarged Rule of Chrodegang together with the Latin Original; and An Old English Version of the Capitula of Theodulf together with the Latin Original; An Interlinear Old English Rendering of the Epitome of Benedict of Aniane, EETS, OS 150 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Træbner, 1916)

          Oliver, George, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter and a History of the Cathedral Exeter (Exeter: Roberts, 1861)

          Parkes, Malcolm B., Their Hands Before Our Eyes: A Closer Look at Scribes (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008)

          Pfaff, R., The Liturgy in Medieval England: A History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

          Robinson, Pamela R., Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 737-1600 in Cambridge Libraries, 2 vols (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1988)

          Scragg, D. G., 'The Corpus of Vernacular Homilies and Prose Saints' Lives before Ælfric', Anglo-Saxon England, 8 (1979), 223-77

          ---, Alexander Rumble, and Kathryn Powell, C11 Database Project (Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies,, accessed 2009)

          Selborne, Roundell, Earl of, Ancient Facts And Fictions Concerning Churches And Tithes, 2nd edn (London: Macmillan, 1892)

          Treharne, Elaine M., 'Bishops and their Texts in the Later Eleventh Century: Worcester and Exeter', in Essays in Manuscript Geography: Vernacular Manuscripts of the English West Midlands from the Conquest to the Sixteenth Century, ed. Wendy Scase (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), pp. 13-28

          ---, 'Producing a Library in Late Anglo-Saxon England: Exeter, 1050-1072', Review of English Studies, 54 (2003), 155-72

          Wanley, Humfrey, Antique literature septentrionalis liber alter (Oxford: Sheldonian Theatre, 1705)

          Warren, F. E., The Leofric Missal as used in the Cathedral of Exeter during the episcopate of its first bishop, A.D. 1050-1072. Together with some account of the Red book of Derby, the Missal of Robert of Jumièges, and a few other early manuscript service books of the English church (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1883)