Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 383

Present Location
Shelfmark

383

Date
Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

65

Gnuess/Lapidge

102

Summary

A collection of Anglo-Saxon law-codes and related texts. The manuscript has been given various dates from the late eleventh century through to the second quarter of the twelfth century. Early twentieth-century descriptions of the manuscript proposed a date of 1125-1130 (see Liebermann 1903James 1903, pp. 230-231). Ker 1957revises this to an earlier date of s. xii/xii (pp. 110-13). The date can be further refined to s. xiiin following the dating criteria for twelfth-century vernacular hands given by Treharne 2000.

The marginalia in Latin and French (pp. 48-52) are s. xii/xiii; lines in French (p. 5) are s. xiii.

Digital Surrogate

Manuscript Items

 

  1. Itemfol. 30v/ 20-26 and fol. 10r/1-3

     

    • Title (B.14.34): Blaseras

      Incipit(fol. 39v/ 20-23) ǷE CǷEDON BE ÐAM blaserum· | ˥ beðam morð slihtum þæt mon dypte ðone | að beðry fealdum ˥ myclade þætordal ·isen · | ðet hit ƿæge ðreo pund·

      Explicit(fol. 10r/ 2-3) hƿæðer he | hlif age ðe nage þeto ðære byrig hyron·

      Text Language: English

      Other versions of the text:

       

      Note: The layout of the beginning of the law-code has a similar degree of emphasis to many of the sub-divisions of Alfred-IneWormald (1999) argues that this and the following two items, Forfang and Hundredgemot, had become associated with Alfred-Ineas appendices. Richards (1986) argues that I Æthelred was also used in the manuscript as a fourth appendix to Alfred-Ine.

      In the current ordering of the manuscript this item is split between two quires, with the beginning of the item at the end of Quire 3 and the end of the item at the beginning of Quire 1.

       

      Decoration: A two-line, red, pen-drawn initial Ƿis inset into the first two lines of the item, fol. 30v/20-21.

      Bibliography:

      James 1903, pp. 230-31.

      Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 2.

      Liebermann 1903, pp. 388-89.

      Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

      Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

      Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 367-68.

         

    • Itemfol. 30v/20

      Rubric (initial): (fol. 30v/20) BEMORÐSLIhTVM

      Text Language: English

      Other versions of the text:

       

      Date: s. xiiin

      Hand: 3a

      Note: Rubric to Blaseras.

      Bibliography:

       

    • Itemfol. 10r/3-19

       

      • Title (B.14.35): Forfang

        Incipit(fol. 10r/3-5) For | fang ofer eal syhit on anscire sy hit on ma· | fiftyne penegas·

        Explicit(fol. 10r/18-19) forðam bið | on læsse plihte begytan·

        Text Language: English

        Other versions of the text:

         

        Note: The transition from the preceding item (Blaseras) is marked only by a majuscule 'F' produced by the main hand.

        Two interlinear additions made by hand 3a, s. xii2/4 'engle' and 'm' both at fol. 10r/ 8.

        Decoration: A two-line, red, pen-drawn E is indented into the text-block following a sub-division in the law-code at fol. 10r/7-8.

        Bibliography:

        James 1903, pp. 230-31.

        Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Articles 2-3.

        Liebermann 1903, pp. 388-91.

        Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

        Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

        Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 369-370.

           

      • Itemfol. 10r/6

        Text Language: English

        Date: s. xii1

        Hand: 3a

        Note: Rubric to Forfang.

        Bibliography:

         

      • Itemfol. 10r/19 to 11r/9

         

        • Title (B.14.15): Hundredgemot

          Incipit(fol. 10r/19-20) Ðis is seo ge ræd | nyss humon þæt hundred haldan | sceal · ærest þæt he heo gegaderian a ymb | feoƿer ƿucan·

          Explicit(fol. 11r/8-9) Ðæt | isen ðe bið to ðrim fealdum · ordale· þætƿege ·iii·pund·

          Text Language: English

          Note:

          The law-code begins mid-line, following on from the end of Forfang, with an 'Ð' in the main hand and ink as the rest of the item but with the shaft and bowl produced with two overlapping strokes to create a thicker, darker line. The end of the law-code originally ran into the following item I Æthelred, although the end was erased and amended into the right margin of fol. 11r/9 by Hand 3b when the break with the following law-code was re-worked and emphasised.

           

          A number of interlinear corrections and one in the margin to the item, most probably by hand 3a.

          • fol. 10r/ right margin: 'þæt hundred haldan | sceal. ærest' providing words lost due to eyeskip.
          • fol. 10v/ 16: 'he'
          • fol. 10v/ 18: erasure.
          • fol. 10v/ 20: 'anna'

           

          Two '˥' have been inserted into fol. 11r/6 and 7, possibly by Hand 1 or Hand 3b.

          The end of the item on fol. 11r/10 has been erased and re-written in the right margin following on from line 9 by hand 3b: 'ge·iii· pund .'

          Decoration: A two-line, red, pen-drawn G is indented into the text-block following a sub-division in the law-code at fol. 10r/22-23.

          Bibliography:

          James 1903, pp. 230-31.

          Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 4.

          Liebermann 1903, pp. 192-95.

          Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

          Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

          Whitelock 1955, p. 429.

          Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 378-79.

             

        • Itemfol. 10r/22-24, right margin

          Text Language: English

          Date: s. xii1

          Hand: 3a

          Note: Rubric to Hundredgemot.

          Bibliography:

           

        • Itemfol. 11r/10 -12r/20

           

          • Title (B.14.20): I Æthelred

            Incipit(fol. 11r/10-11) Ðis is þage ræddnysse þe æþelred | cining

            Explicit(fol. 12r/19-20) sƿa ure ealra cƿide is. sylle | ðam cynge hund tƿelftig scillingas

            Text Language: English

            Other versions of the text:

             

            Note: The item appears to have begun originally midway through fol. 11r/10. Line 10 was erased and the beginning of the item re-written by Hand 3b to begin at the left bounding line of line 10 and with two letters in the left margin of line 11. The re-written portion is: ' Ðis is þage ræddnysse þe æþelred | ci'

            Other additions and alterations to the item consist of:

            • fol. 11r/ right margin parallel to lines 11-13, Hand 3a addition: '˥ to | anfaldum | anpund'.
            • fol. 11v/8: a paraph has been inserted into the text-block by an unknown hand.
            • fol. 11v/17: a diacratic has been added to 'heo' by an unknown hand.
            • fol. 11v/19: interlinear addition of 'his', possibly by Hand 3a.
            • fol. 11v/23: interlinear addition of 'be', possibly by Hand 3a.
            • fol. 12r/right margin parallel to line 4, Hand 3a addition: 'þam ordale mear | cne man hine æt'.

             

            Decoration: A two-line red pen-drawn Ð is set into the left margin adjacent to the text-block at fol. 11r/9-10 following the re-working of the division in the text-block with the preceding item, Hundredgemot by the miniator and Hand 3b.

            Bibliography:

            Gobbitt (forthcoming).

            James 1903, pp. 230-31.

            Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 5.

            Liebermann 1903, pp. 216-21.

            Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

            Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

            Wormald 1978, pp. 47-80.

            Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 320-21.

               

          • Itemfol. 11r/10-11, right margin

            Rubric (initial): (fol. 11r/10-11 right margin) ÆÐELREDES | LAGE ·

            Text Language: English

            Other versions of the text:

             

            Date: s. xii1

            Hand: 3a

            Note: Rubric to I Æthelred.

            Bibliography:

             

          • Itemfol. 12v/2-26

             

            • Title (B.14.5): Alfred and Guthrum

              Incipit(fol. 12v/2-5) ÐIS IS þæt frið ðæt ælfred cyng ˥ guðrum | cing· ˥ ealles angel cynnes ƿitan · ˥ eal seo | ðeod ðe on east englum beoð·˥ ge sƿoren hab | bað·

              Explicit(fol. 12v/25-26) þæt ure ænig to | oðrum fæce mid yrfe · and mid æhtum·

              Text Language: English

              Note: This is the first version of Alfred and Guthrum in the manscript, catalogued and edited by Liebermann as 'B2'.

              The item has been altered and added to in the margins and in the interlinear space. Most of these alterations appear to be by Hand 3a, but one is probably by hand 2.

              • fol. 12v/4: interlinear addition, 'cƿeþ', Hand 3.
              • fol. 12v/left margin parallel to line 5: '˥ mid aþum | gefæstnod', Hand 3a.
              • fol. 12v/right margin parallel to line 5: 'ingram', probably Hand 3a.
              • fol. 12v/left margin parallel to line 10: 'þis þonne', probably Hand 2.
              • fol. 12v/14: over an erasure, in the interlinear space and ending in the right margin: ' þa syndon eac efen dyre ægþer tƿahund | scyllinga', Hand 3.
              • fol. 12v/22: interlinear addition, 'e', uncertain hand.

              Decoration: A three-line, red, pen-drawn initial Ð is indented into the text-block at the beginning of the item, fol. 12v/1-3.

              Bibliography:

              Davis, 1982, pp. 803-10.

              James 1903, pp. 230-31.

              Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 6.

              Kershaw 2000, pp. 43-72.

              Liebermann 1903, pp. 126-28.

              Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

              Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

              Whitelock 1955, p. 416.

              Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 285-86.

                 

            • Itemfol. 12v/1, right margin

              Rubric (initial): (fol. 12v/1) ÆLFREDES LAGA CYNINGES·

              Text Language: English

              Date: s. xii1

              Hand: 3a

              Note: Rubric to Alfred and Guthrum. This rubric seems to have been anticipated in the initial production of the manuscript, unlike the vast majority of rubrics in CCCC 383, as the first line of the item (fol. 12v/1) was left blank to accommodate it.

              Bibliography:

               

            • Itemfol. 13r/1 - 14v/24

               

              • Title (B.14.6): Edward and Guthrum

                Incipit(fol. 13r/1-4) AND ÐIS IS SEOGE rædnyss· eac | ðe ælfred cyng · ˥guðrum cyng · ˥eft | eadƿard cyng · ˥gyþrum cyng ·gecuran · | ˥ge cƿædon ·

                Explicit(fol. 14v/22-24) sƿa hit gebyrige oððe ða | dæde · ƿrece · sƿiðe deope· ðe cyning syon | ðeode·

                Text Language: English

                Other versions of the text:

                 

                Decoration: A two-line, red, pen-drawn initial A is indented into the text-block at the beginning of the item, fol. 13r/1-2.

                Bibliography:

                James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 7.

                Liebermann 1903, pp. 128-35.

                Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                Whitelock 1941, pp. 1-21.

                Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 389-91.

                   

              • Itemfol. 13r/1-2, right margin

                Rubric (initial): (fol. 13r/ 1-2 right margin) EFT HIS ·˥Guðru | mes·˥eadƿar | deS ·

                Text Language: English

                Other versions of the text:

                 

                Date: s. xii1

                Hand: 3a

                Note: Rubric to Edward and Guthrum.

                Bibliography:

                 

              • Itemfol. 14v/25 - 15v/26

                 

                • Title (B.14.9): II Æthelstan

                  Incipit(fol. 14v/25-15r/1) ÆrEST ÐET MAN NE SǷArige  NANNE ÐEOF ÐE | æt hæbendre hand ge fangen sy· || ofer tƿelf ƿinterne·

                  Explicit(fol. 15v/25-26) gyf ðær | man acƿeald ƿære· ˥ he his æt sacan

                  Text Language: English

                  Other versions of the text:

                   

                  Note: Ancephalous: the item ends abruptly at the end of Quire 1 (fol. 15v/ 26), from which it can be deduced that another quire originally followed on from it.

                  A number of alterations and additions:

                  • fol. 14v/25: interlinear addition, 'rige', Hand 3.
                  • fol. 15r/6: erasure and amendment, 'Oþer gif', probably Hand 2.
                  • fol. 15r/left margin adjacent to line 9: 'a', uncertain hand.
                  • fol. 15v/11: interlinear addition, 't', uncertain hand.
                  • fol. 15v/15: interlinear addition, 'h', uncertain hand.
                  • fol. 15v/20: diacritic added to 'ful', uncertain hand.
                  • fol. 15v/21: diacritic added to 'ful', uncertain hand.
                  • fol. 15/left margin parallel to line 22: 'q· bete', possibly Hand 3.

                  Decoration: A two-line, red, pen-drawn initial Æ is inset into the beginning of the item, fol. 14v/25-26.

                  Two-line red initials are indented at the start of each of the sub-divisions of the item in the text-block: fol. 15r/18-19, fol. 15v/2-3, 17-18 and 24-25.

                   

                  Bibliography:

                  James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                  Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 8.

                  Liebermann 1903, pp. 150-53.

                  Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                  Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                  Whitelock 1955, p. 417.

                  Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 290-308.

                     

                • Itemfols 14v/24-15r/17

                  Rubric (initial): (fol. 14v/24) Be ðeofum ·

                  Explicit(fol. 15r/17) Be lafordleafum mannum·

                  Text Language: English

                  Other versions of the text:

                   

                  Date: s. xii1

                  Hand: 3a

                  Note: Rubrics to II Æthelstan.

                  Bibliography:

                   

                • Itemfol. 16r/1 - 30v/19

                   

                  • Title (B.14.4): Alfred-Ine

                    Incipit(fol. 16r/1) Oþres bisceopes · oððe ealdor mannes | borges bryce·oððe mund byrd · ge bete | mid· ii·pundum

                    Explicit(fol. 30v/19) gyf hit bisceop sunu sy· sybe helafum ðem·

                    Text Language: English

                    Other versions of the text:

                     

                    Note: Acephalous: the beginning of the law-code is no longer extant, and it currently begins at the start of what is now Quire 2 (fol. 17r). From this it can be deduced that at least one quire originally preceded it. A folio, originally positioned between fols 20 and 21, is missing from Quire 2.

                    The item has been heavily amended, with around 250 interventions in the form of interlinear and marginal additions, erasures and alteration of the text-block and punctuation. The majority of the alterations are either by Hand 3a or without diagnostic traits to identify the hand, although Hands 1, 2 and 3b are also occasionally present.

                    • An erasure changes 'iii·pundum' to 'ii' by removing the first minim. This is emphasised by the interlinear addition of 'ii' in brown ink immediately above the remaining text.
                    • 'Ælfredi' has been added as running heading in the upper margin of the recto and 'Leges' on the upper margin of the verso of fols 16 to 22, by an unknown hand.
                    • 'Inæ' has been added as running heading in the upper margin of the recto and 'Leges' on the upper margin of the verso of fols 23 to 30, by an unknown hand.
                    • Punctuation has been altered by an unkown hand at fols 16r/7 and 25, 16v/20, 17r/7, 12 14 and 25, 17v/2, 4, 6 and 23, and at 18r/20 and 22.
                    • Diacritcs have been added to the item by an unknown hand at fols 23r/9,10, 14 and 20, 23v/18, 25v/5 and 11, 27v, 23, 29r/6 and 14, and at 29v/13.
                    • Erasures without subsequent addition of items at fols 16v/13, 21r/19, 21v/11-12 and 20, 22v/11, 23r/6, 23r/20, 23v/16, 24r/18, 24v/2, 25v/2, 7, 22 and 24, 26v/8, 28r/26, 29r/18, 29v/3 and at 30r/18.
                    • Paraphs in brown or black ink have been added at fols 16r/10 and 20, 16v/3 and 7 (both in the left margin adjacent to the line), 17r/ 15, 17v/17, 18v/ left margin adjacent to lines 2-5, 19r/13, 15, 19 and 25, 19v/17, 20r/ 18, 21r/5 and 18, 22r/7 and 24, 22v/1, 6, 20 and 24, 23r/8, 24r/13, 24v/3 and 11, 25r/4, 27r/8 and 26, 27v/14, 28v/16,29r/11 and 20, and at 29v/11.
                    • Interlinear additions of one word or less can be found at fols 16r/3, 16r/5, 16r/16, 16r/18, 16r/21, 16v/1, 16v/3, 16v/7, 16v/10, 16v/23, 17r/10 (linear addition), 17r/right margin parallel to line 15, 17r/18, 17r/25, 17v/6, 17v/13,18r/5 (two linear additions and one interlinear), 18r/17, 18r/22 (linear addition), 18v/5, 18v/9, 18v/right margin parallel to line 24, 18v/25, 19r/9 (linear addition), 19r, 12, 19r/15 (linear addition), 19r/22, 19r/23, 19r/25, 19v/7, 19v/18 (linear addition), 20r/9, 20r/right margin, parallel to line 13, 20r/14, 20r/16, 20r/24, 20v/7, 20v/15, 22r/3 (four interventions), 22v/3, 23r/13, 23r/14, 23v/6, 24v/1 (linear addition), 24v/left margin parallel to line 2, 24v/6, 24v/7, 24v/9 (linear addition), 24v/15 (linear addition), 24v/17, 24v/24, 25r/7, 25r/19, 25v/3, 25v/7 (linear addition), 25v/15 (linear addition), 25v/23, 25v/24, 26r/left margin parallel to line 3, 26r/ 11 (two interventions), 26r/13 (linear addition), 26r/15, 26v/24, 27r/7, 27r/8, 27r/19, 27v/3 (linear addition), 27v/7, 27v/8, 27v/22, 27v/26, 28r/4, 28r/15, 28v/left margin parallel to line 6, 28v/16, 28v/18 (two interventions), 28v/19, 28v/26 (two interventions), 29r/1 (two interventions), 29r/3, 29r/8, 29r/11 (one linear and one interlinear addition), 29r/12, 29r/13, 29r/18, 29v/2, 29v/24, 30r/19, 30r/right margin parallel to line 22, 30v/7, 30v/right margin parallel to 7, 30v/15, 10v/18, 30v/19 and 30v/24 (linear addition).
                    • fol. 16v/left margin parallel to line 13: 'Æt oþrum cerre', possibly Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 20r/right margin parallel to lines 6 to 8: 'gif he þone beo [xx]  | rd of ascere mi [xx]  | xx. scillinga ge bet [xx] ', Hand 3a. The end of each line has been trimmed.
                    • fol. 20r/right margin parallel to line 12: 'Gif beforan | eagum', Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 20r/right margin parallel to line 13: 'gylde | þone ƿer', Hand 2.
                    • fol. 20v/left margin parallel to line 23: 'ceorles eoder | brvce . fif | scillingas .', Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 20v/right margin parallel to line 25: 'sihit tƿi | bote Gif | mann | anlen [x]  | te', Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 21v/left margin parallel to line 1: 'Gif man odrum | þætnebb of aftea | ge bete hit mid | feoƿertig scillinga', Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 24r/left margin parallel to line 22: 'ƿið godd | seoplice | bete', Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 27v/13, interlinear addition: 'Giþ ƿylisc', possibly Hand 3a.
                    • fol. 28v/23, interlinear addition: 'þam syllend', Hand 1.
                    • fol. 30r/right margin parallel to line 4: '˥ tynges | ˥ ƿenti hen | na | ˥ tyn cysas', Hand 3.

                    Decoration:

                    One-line and two-line red initials are indented into the text-block at the beginning of each of the sub-divisions of the item, fols 16r/4 and 14-15, 16v/11, 17 and 24, 17r/9, 19 and 24, 17v/8, 12, 17, 21 and 26, 18r/3, 7 and 18, 18v/4, 8, 13, 17 and 26, 19r/2-3, 7, 11, 13 and 19, 19v/2, 5-6, 11, 17-18 and 26, 20r/10-11 and 18, 20v/4, 9, 12 and 19, 21r/10-12, 15, 18 and 23, 23r/18, 22 and 26, 23v/7, 11 and 15, 24r/4, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23 and 25, 24v/3, 6, 10, 13-14, 17, 20 and 23, 25r/1, 8-9, 12-13, 21-22, 25v/1, 7, 10, 13-14, 18 and 22, 26r/1, 4, 8-9, 10-11, 16-17 and 25-26, 26v/6-7, 10, 16 and 20, 27r/1, 15 and 24, 27v/2-3, 8-9, 16, 18 and 23, 28r/6, 12-13, 16 and 19, 28v/6, 18-19, 20, 25, 29r/6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13-14, 18 and 20, 29v/6, 9-10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 22 and 24-25, 30r/7, 11, 15 and 18, and at 30v/ 3 and 10.

                    Following an erasure and amendment (possibly by Hand 3b and in association with the miniator), the beginning of the Laws of Ine has been re-worked and a five-line, red, initial I added into the left margin of fol. 23r, adjacent to lines 3-8.

                    Red paraph marks are inserted into the text-block of the item on fols 17v/17 and 26,18r/3. 21v/ 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22 and 24, 22r/ 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17 and 20 and at 22v/2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 16, 18, 22 and 26.

                     

                    Bibliography:

                    James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                    Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 1.

                    Liebermann 1903, pp. 51-123.

                    Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                    Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                    Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 265-85.

                       

                  • Itemfols 16r/3-30v/12, margins and empty line space

                    Explicit(fol. 30v/9-12, right margin) BEGODFÆDERES oððe | GODSU | NES | SLA | TE·

                    Text Language: English

                    Other versions of the text:

                     

                    Date: s. xii1

                    Hand: 3b

                    Note: Rubrics to Alfred-Ine. In other manuscript witnesses, the capitula list is given at the beginning and only the numbers are inserted into the text-block. It would appear that Hand 1 anticipated the production of Alfred-Ine to follow this pattern as space was not left for the full capitula to be rubricated adjacent to the corresponding clauses.

                    Rubrics are inserted into the text-block and margins where space can be found at at fols 16v/16-18 and 23-24, 17r/8, 19 and 23, 17v/7, 17, 20-21 and the lower margin, 18r/3-5 and 17-18, 18v/3-5, 7, 12-13, 16-17 and 25, 19r 1, 6, 11, 13-14 and 19, 19v/10, 16 and 25-26, 20r/9-10 and 18, 20v/2-4, 8, 11-13, 17-18 and 26, 21r/10 and 14, 23r/5, 23v/7, 10 and 15, 24r/3, 8, 12, 16, 19, 22 and 25-26, 24v/5, 10-11, 12, 16, 19, 22-23 and 26, 25r/upper margin, 6, 9-11, 12-13, 18, 22 and 26, 26r/3-4, 7-8, 10, 15-16 and 25, 26v/5-6, 9-14, 15-16, 19-20 and 25-26, 27r/ 14 and 22-24, 27v/ 2, 7, 17-19 and 21-23, 28r/5-6, 11, 15 and 18-19, 28v/5-7, 17, 19-21 and 25, 29r/13, 17 and 20-22, 29v/4-6, 8, 11, 12, 14, 18-20, 21-22 and 24-25, 30r/6, 10, 13-14 and 17-18, and at 30v/3-5.

                     

                    Bibliography:

                     

                  • Itemfols 38r/1-52v/1

                     

                    • Title (B.14.30): I, II Cnut

                      Incipit(fol. 38r/1) mæsse dæge·sƿa he be boden beo

                      Explicit(fols 52r/26-52v/1) God ælmihtig || us eallum ge milt sie sƿa his ƿilla sy. amen.

                      Text Language: English

                      Other versions of the text:

                       

                      Note: The beginning of the law-code is no longer extant, and it currently begins at the start of what is now Quire 4 (fol. 38r). From this it can be deduced that at least one quire originally preceded it.

                      The item has been heavily amended, with around 200 interventions in the form of interlinear and marginal additions, erasures and alteration of the text-block and punctuation. The majority of the alterations are either by hand 3a or there are no diagnostic traits to identify theH hand, although Hands 1 and 2 are also occasionally present.

                      • 'Leges' has been added as running heading in the upper margin of the verso and 'Cnuti' on the upper margin of the verso of fols 38v to 52r, by an unknown hand.
                      • Punctuation has been altered by an unknown hand at fols 39r/15, 41r/20 and 22, 44v/14 and at 46v/6.
                      • Diacritcs have been added to the item by an unknown hand at fols 38v/9, 39v/21, 23 and 25, 41v/1, 2, 9, 12, 15, 17 and 18, 42r/20, 21 and 22, 42v/9, 12, 14, 18 and 19, 43r/19 and 26, 43v/5, 44r/4 and 6, 44v/12, 17 and 26, 45r/3, 4, 5, 13, 15, 18, 19 and 22, 45v/6, 46v/3, 4 and 5, 47v/9, 48v/24 and at 50v/16.
                      • Erasures without subsequent addition of items at fols 38r/23-24, 38v/7 and 26, 41r/9, 42v/18, 43v/4 and 6, 44v/4,15 and 26, 45r/22, 46v/3, 7, 15 and 25, 47r/8, 10, 13 and 16, 47v/13, 48v/23, 49r/17, 49v/3, 50r/10, 51r/9 and at 51v/3.
                      • Paraphs in brown or black ink have been added at fols 51r/5 and 51v/13.
                      • Interlinear additions of one word or less can be found at fols 38v/8 (two interventions) and 26, 39r/1 (linear addition), 15 and 16 (right margin), 39v/1, 4 (left margin and also a linear addition), 16 and 24, 40r/6 and 21 (right margin), 40v/18 (linear addition), 41r/9 (linear addition) and 10, 41v/14, 42r/11, 42v/6 and 15, 43r/3, 4 (linear addition), 12 (linear addition), 16 and 22, 43v/4, 9 (linear addition), 10 and 18, 44r/13, 14 (linear addition) and 20 (linear addition), 44v/17 and 24, 45r/6, 17, 22 and 24 (linear addition), 46v/6 (linear addition), 7 (interlinear addition and also a linear addition), 10, 11, 15 (left margin), 19 (linear addition) and 23 (interlinear addition and also in right margin), 47r/4 (right margin), 10, 12 (left margin and also a linear addition), 13, 16 and 22, 47v/1 (linear addition), 3 (linear addition), 8 and 15, 48r/5, 6 (right margin, Hand 2) and 20, 48v/upper margin, 7 (linear addition and interlinear addition), 14, 7 (left margin), 19 (left margin, Hand 2) and 23 (Hand 2), 49r/8 (linear addition) and 10 (linear addition), 49v/14, 50r/11 (right margin), 21 and 26, 50v/1, 51v/2 (linear addition), 10, 17 and 25 and at 52r/14.
                      • fol. 39r/right margin parallel to line 24: 'ƿessculanus | gebiddan 7m | þam credan', Hand 3a.
                      • fol. 42v/23: interlinear addition, 'and daga', possibly Hand 2.
                      • fol. 43r/right margin parallel to line 17: 'on þreo | hundredan | ˥ þeo faldne | að', probably Hand 3a.
                      • fol. 43v/left margin parallel to line 19: '˥ mannge | craƿancan | þæt þærbrygde | biþ', possibly Hand 2.
                      • fol. 44v/left margin parallel to line 11: 'þe þæs ƿurþe | si', Hand 3a.
                      • fol. 46v/left margin parallel to line 15: 'hine sylfne', Hand 3a.
                      • fol 48r/11-12: 'driue himan | of', Hand 3b.
                      • fol. 48r/left margin parallel to line 15: 'þone | banan', Hand 3a.
                      • fol. 48r/17: interlinear addition, '˥ ƿæclæne | ƿyrþ', Hand 2.
                      • fol. 49r/12: erasure and amendment, 'ƿelige ˥ ƿædle frige ˥ þeoƿæ', Hand 3a.
                      • fol. 50r/18: interlinear addition, 'gyf heo', hand 3.
                      • fol. 50r/21 and right margin parallel to lines 21-25: 'þurh þone ærran ƿere heafde . ˥ for [xx]  | þanyxtan fry [xx]  | to þam lande [xx]  | to þam æltte þ [xx]  | heo ærhæf [xx]  | ˥ si he his [xx] ', Hand 3a, item trimmed at the edge of the folio.
                      • fol. 50v/8: interlinear addition, 'uete riht', Hand 3a.
                      • fol. 51r/right margin parallel to line 3: '˥ hiretægan', Hand 3a.

                      Decoration: One-line and two-line red initials are indented into the text-block at the beginning of each of the sub-divisions of the item, at fols: 40r/22-23, 41v/25-26, 49r/20, 23-24 and 26, 49v/5-6 and 16, 50r/4-5, 50v/17-18, 51r/5, 7-8, 14, 20 and 21-23, 51v/5, 11, 13, 17, 18, 20 and 24, and at 52r/4, 7, 9, 14, 17, 20 and 24.

                      The miniator also amended the text-block heavily throughout the item:

                      • Erasure of the text-block and addition of one line red initials at fols 38r/6 and 17, 38v/4, 12, 21 and 26, 39r/21, 39v/15, 40v/18 and 25, 41r/4, 8 and 24, 41v/11, 42r/3, 42v/11, 17 and 25, 43r/19 and 24, 43v/6, 44r/7, 20 and 24, 45r/16, 45v/3, 13 and 21, 46r/2, 6 and 25, 46v/9 and 15, 49v/7 and 26, 50r/16, 50v/4, 8, 21 and 23, and at 52r/26.
                      • Insertion of red paraphs into the text-block at fols 42r/9, 43v/18, 44v/1 (large paraph), 46r/13 (large paraph), 46v/2, 18 and 23, 47r/11, 47v/12, 16 (two instances), 22 and 23, 48r/13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23 and 26, 48v/3 (large paraph), 5 (large paraph), 9 (large paraph), 11 (large paraph), 13 (large paraph), 19 (large paraph), 22 (large paraph) and 25 (large paraph), 51v/5 and 11, and at 52r/9.
                      • Highlighting of graphs in the text-block at fols 39r/6, 42r/9, 47v/2, 12, 21, 22 and 23, 48r/13, 15, 18, 23 and 26, and at 49v/26.

                       

                      Bibliography:

                      James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                      Kennedy 1983, pp. 57-81.

                      Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Articles 9-10.

                      Lawson 1992, pp. 565-86.

                      Liebermann 1903, p. 294-370.

                      Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                      Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                      Stafford 1982, pp. 173-90.

                      Whitelock 1955, p. 454.

                      Whitelock 1958, pp. 533-52.

                      Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 345-66.

                         

                    • Itemfols 38r/6-51v/4, margins and empty line space

                      Explicit(51v/4, left margin) Be huntnaðe ·

                      Text Language: English

                      Date: s. xii1

                      Hand: 3b

                      Note: Rubrics to I, II Cnut.

                      Rubrics are inserted into the text-block and margins where space can be found at at fols 38v/12, 39v/upper margin and 13, 40v/25, 41r/24, 42r/3, 42v/11-12, 17 and 24-25, 43r/10, 44r/6, 44v/1-2 and 16, 45r/15-16, 45v/3-4, 14-15 and 21-22, 46r/2-3 and 13-14, 46v/upper margin and 9-11, 47r/1-3 and 11, 47v/upper margin, 12, 16-17, 21-22 and 24-25, 48r/13, 16, 18-19, 23-24 and 26, 48v/3, 6, 9, 11, 13 and 19, 49r/7, 49v/7-8, 16, 20-21 and lower margin, 50r/16-18, 50v/23-25, and at 51r/13-14 and 21.

                       

                      Bibliography:

                       

                    • Itemfols 52v/9-54v/2

                       

                      • Title (B.14.7): I, II Eadweard

                        Incipit(fol. 52v/9-13) E ADǷERD CYNING byt ðam gerefum eal ~ | lum þæt gedeman sƿa rihte domas sƿa gerih ~ | toste cunnon ˥ hit onðære dombec stande | ne ƿandie for nanum ðingum folc riht to | ge reccanne ·

                        Explicit(fol. 54v/1-2) gyf hit | hƿa ofer hebbe bete sƿa ƿe ær cƿædon·

                        Text Language: English

                        Other versions of the text:

                         

                        Note:

                        Seven lines preceding the item were left blank, fol. 52v/2-8

                        The only alterations to the item comprise four erasures at fol. 52v/12 and fol. 53v/4, 5 and 25.

                         

                        Decoration: The item begins with a two-line red initial E, fol. 52v/9-10. Another two-line red initial E is indented at the sub-division of the item where the second part begins on fol. 53v/3-4. At the subdivision of the item on fol. 54r/24 a single line indent was left in the text-block although this remains without miniaturing.

                        Red paraphs have been inserted into the text-block at fol. 53r/9 and 12.

                         

                        Bibliography:

                        James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                        Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Articles 11-13.

                        Liebermann 1903, pp. 138-45.

                        Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                        Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                        Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 286-90.

                           

                      • Itemfol. 54v/4 - 55r/6

                         

                        • Title (B.14.13): I Eadmund

                          Incipit(fol. 54v/4-7) E ADMUND CYNING ge somnode micelne | sinoð to lunde byrig onða halgan easter | licon tid ægðær ge godcundra hada ge ƿo | ruldcundra·

                          Explicit(fol. 55r/4-6) ˥ lyblay ƿyrcað syn hy afram ælcum | godes dæle aporpene bute hy to rihtre dæd | bote ge cyrran ·

                          Text Language: English

                          Other versions of the text:

                           

                          Note:

                          One line preceding the item was originally left blank, fol. 54v/3.

                          Alterations to the item consist of:

                          • fol. 54v/9: interlinear addition, 'eo', possibly Hand 1 or Hand 3b.
                          • fol. 54v/9: interlinear addition, '+', uncertain hand.
                          • fol. 54v/10: interlinear addition, 'd', uncertain hand.
                          • fol. 54v/11: interlinear addition, 'cumen', possibly Hand 1 or 3b.
                          • fol. 54v/12: interlinear addition, 'afte', uncertain hand.
                          • fol. 54v/19: interlinear addition, 'cA toitaig', possibly Hand 1 or 3b/
                          • fol. 55r/1: interlinear addition, 'refiriat', possibly Hand 1 or 3b.
                          • fol. 55r/5: erasure.

                           

                           

                          Decoration: The item begins with a two-line red initial E, fol. 54v/4-5.

                          Bibliography:

                          James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                          Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 14.

                          Liebermann 1903, pp. 184-87.

                          Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                          Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                          Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 308-12.

                             

                        • Itemfols 55r/7-56r/11

                           

                          • Title (B.14.14): II Eadmund

                            Incipit(fol. 55r/7-10) E ADmund cyning cyð eallum folce ge yl | drum gegingrum ðeon his anƿealde syn þætic smeade mid minra ƿitena geðeahte | gegodra hada ge læƿedra·

                            Explicit(fol. 56r/10-11) manbo ~ | te · ðæs on ·xxi· nihton ðæs ƿeres þæt frum gyld ·

                            Text Language: English

                            Other versions of the text:

                             

                            Note:

                            The only alterations to the item are three erasures fol. 55r/16, and fol. 55v/4 and 11.

                             

                            Decoration: Begins with a two line red initial E indented into the text-block, fol. 55r/7-8. A two-line red initial G is inserted into the text-block over an erasure on fol. 55v/8. A red paraph has been inserted into empty space left in the middle of fol. 55v/22 and a one-line red initial Ƿ is indented into the text-block at fol. 55v/26.

                            Bibliography:

                            James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                            Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 15.

                            Liebermann 1903, pp. 186-91.

                            Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                            Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                            Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 308-312.

                               

                          • Itemfols 56r/12 - 57r/14

                             

                            • Title (B.14.39): Swerian

                              Incipit(fol. 56r/12-14) O N ðone drihten ðe ðæs halidom | is fore halig ic ƿylle beon ·N· hold ˥getry | ƿe ˥eal lufian þæt he lufað ·

                              Explicit(fol. 57r/12-14) ac | eal ic him ge læste þæt ðæt ic him scolde sƿa | forð sƿa uncre ƿorð ge cƿydu fyr mest ƿæron·

                              Text Language: English

                              Other versions of the text:

                               

                              Note:

                              The only alteration is an erasure at fol. 57r/9.

                               

                              Decoration: Begins with a one-line red initial O on fol. 56r/12.

                              One-line and two-line red initials are indented into the beginning of each of the sub-divisions of the text-block, at fols 56r/12 and 22, 56v/1, 10-11, 16, 19, 21 and 25, 57r/3, 8 and 11.

                              A red initial O has been added over an erasure on fol. 56v/1.

                               

                              Bibliography:

                              James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                              Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 16.

                              Liebermann 1903, pp. 396-99.

                              Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                              Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                              Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 383-84.

                                 

                            • Itemfols 56v/21-57r/10, margins and empty line space

                              Rubric (initial): (56v/12-13 and right margin) Ðus man sceal | sƿerigean hyld | aðas·

                              Explicit(57r/10) And sæcc ·

                              Text Language: English

                              Date: s. xii1

                              Hand: 3b

                              Note: Rubrics to Swerian.

                              Rubrics are inserted into the text-block and margins where space can be found at fols 56r/21-22, 56v/upper margin, 10-12, 15, 18, 20 and 24-25, and at 57r/2-3.

                               

                              Bibliography:

                               

                            • Itemfols 57r/17 - 57v/23

                               

                              • Title (B.14.5): Alfred and Guthrum

                                Incipit(fol. 57r/17-20) Ð IS IS ÐÆT FRIÐ ÐÆT ÆLfred cyninc ˥ gy | ðrum cyning ˥ ealles angelcynnes ƿitan ˥ | eal seo ðeod ðeon east englum beoð ealle ge | cƿeden habbað

                                Explicit(fol. 57v/22-23) ˥ to sƿutulunge þæt man ƿite ðæt man | clæne bæc hæbbe ·

                                Text Language: English

                                Note: This is the second version of Alfred and Guthrum in the manuscript, catalogued and edited by Liebermann as 'B1'

                                Two lines preceding the item were left blank, fol. 57r/15-16.

                                 

                                Decoration: The item begins with a three-line, red, initial Ðindented into the text-block, fol. 57r/16-18.

                                Bibliography:

                                Davis 1982, pp. 803-10.

                                James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 6.

                                Kershaw 2000, pp. 43-72.

                                Liebermann 1903, pp. 126-28.

                                Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                Whitelock 1955, p. 416.

                                Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 285-86.

                                   

                              • Itemfols 57v/2 -58v/4

                                 

                                • Title (B.14.43): Wifmannes beweddung

                                  Incipit(fols 57v/24-58r/1) Gif man mædden oððe ƿif ƿeddian ƿille | ˥ hit sƿa hire ˥ freondan gelicege don | is riht þæt se bryd guma æfter godes rihte || ˥ æfter ƿorold gerysnum

                                  Explicit(fol. 58v/3-4) ðe læs ðeman | eft tƿæme þæt mæn ær aƿoh

                                  Text Language: English

                                  Other versions of the text:

                                   

                                  Note:

                                  The only alteration to the item is an erasure on fol. 58r/11.

                                   

                                  Decoration: Begins with a one-line, red, initial G indented into the text-block, fol. 57v/24.

                                  Hand 3a supplied a red rubric into the empty line space immediately preceding the item and in the right margin.

                                   

                                  Bibliography:

                                  James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                  Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 18.

                                  Liebermann 1903, pp. 442-44.

                                  Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                  Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                  Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 385-87.

                                     

                                • Itemfol. 57r/23-25, right margin

                                  Rubric (initial): (fol. 57r/23-25, right margin) human mæden ƿeddian sceal · | ˥hƿylce foreƿarde þær aghon | tobeon | ne .

                                  Text Language: English

                                  Other versions of the text:

                                   

                                  Date: s. xii1

                                  Hand: 3a

                                  Note: Rubric to Wifmannes Beweddung.

                                  Bibliography:

                                   

                                • Itemfol. 58v/6-59r/6

                                   

                                  • Title (B.14.38): Wer

                                    Incipit(fol. 58v/6) Tƿelf hyndes mannes ƿer is tƿelf hund scyll.

                                    Explicit(fol. 59r/4-6) Eal man sceal æt cyrliscum ƿere beðære mæ ~ | ðe don ðe him to gebyreð sƿaƿebe tƿelf | hundum tealdan·

                                    Text Language: English

                                    Other versions of the text:

                                     

                                    Note: The line preceding the item was originally left blank (fol. 58v/5).

                                    Decoration: The item begins with a three-line, red, initial Tindented into the text-block, fol. 58v/5-7. A one-line, red, initial Eis indented into the text-block at fol. 59r/4.

                                    Two red paraphs have been inserted into the left margin adjacent to majuscules in the text-block at fol. 58v/7 and 20.

                                     

                                    Bibliography:

                                    James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                    Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 19.

                                    Liebermann 1903, pp. 392-95.

                                    Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                    Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                    Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 374-78.

                                       

                                  • Itemfol. 57r/23-25, right margin

                                    Text Language: English

                                    Date: s. xii1

                                    Hand: 3a

                                    Note: Rubric to Wer.

                                    Bibliography:

                                     

                                  • Itemfol. 59r/6-20

                                     

                                    • Title (B.23.1.6): Prose CharmCharm against cattle-theft

                                      Incipit(59r/6-8) Gyf feoh sy under | numen gif hit sy hors sing onhis feotere | oððe onhis bridels·

                                      Explicit(fol. 59r/18-20) ge dydon heom dæda ða ƿyrstan hy þæt dro ~ | fe forguldon hælon hit him to hearme | miclum ˥heo hit na for helanne mihton ·

                                      Text Language: English with Latin ' [C] rux xpi' section on fol. 59r/13-16.

                                      Other versions of the text:

                                       

                                      Note: The item has been struck through in red ink.Wormald observes that the ink is definitely not that of Archbishop Parker and suggests that it may have been done by the rubricator, Hand 3a. Gobbitt argues that the charm was almost certainly crossed out by the miniator due to similarities between the inks when observed under UV light and because the item was left without miniaturing.

                                      The only alteration to the item is the interlinear addition of an 'i' on fol. 59r/14.

                                       

                                      Bibliography:

                                      Cockayne 1864-66.

                                      James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                      Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 20.

                                      Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                      Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                      Storms 1948.

                                      Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 384-85.

                                         

                                    • Itemfols 59r/21-59v/16

                                       

                                      • Title (B.14.40): Hit becwæð

                                        Incipit(fol. 59r/21-24) h it becƿæð ˥becƿæl seðe hit | ahte mid fullan folcrihte sƿa sƿa hit h is | yldran mid feo ˥ mid feore rihte begea ~ | tan ·

                                        Explicit(fol. 59v/14-16) ne | socne neðummes neðearft ne mynte ic | ðe nan ðing·

                                        Text Language: English

                                        Other versions of the text:

                                         

                                        Note:

                                        Alterations to the item consist of the interlinear addition of an 'h' on fol. 59r/ 22 and two erasures at fol. 59v/13 and 14.

                                         

                                        Decoration: The item begins with a three-line red initial h, fol. 59r/19-21.

                                        Bibliography:

                                        James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                        Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 21.

                                        Liebermann 1903, p. 400.

                                        Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                        Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                        Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 384-85.

                                           

                                      • Itemfols 59v/17-62r/2

                                         

                                        • Title (B.14.21): II Æthelred

                                          Incipit(fol. 59v/17-21) ÐIS SYND ÐAFRIÐ mal ˥ ða for ƿord | ðe æthelred cyng ˥ ealle his ƿitan | ƿið ðone here ge don habbað ðe anlaf | ˥ iustin ˥ guðmund stegitan sunu mid ƿæ | ron ·

                                          Explicit(fols 61v/26-62r/2) geƿitnes him to agenunge rymð || for ðam agnung bið nerðam ðe hæfð ðonne | ðam ðe æfter sprecð ·

                                          Text Language: English

                                          Note: The only alteration to the item is an erasure on fol. 59v/17.

                                          Decoration: The item begins with a one-line, red, initial Ðindented into the text-block, fol. 59v/17.

                                          Bibliography:

                                          James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                          Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 22.

                                          Lawson 1992, pp. 565-86.

                                          Liebermann 1903, pp. 220-25.

                                          Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                          Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                          Wormald 1978, pp. 47-80.

                                          Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 369-70.

                                             

                                        • Itemfol. 62r/3-63r/ 26

                                           

                                          • Title (B.14.31): Dunsæte

                                            Incipit(fol. 62r/3-5) ð IS IS SEO GERÆDNES ðe angelcynnes ƿi | tan ˥ ƿealh ðeode rædboran betƿeox | dunsetan ge setton·

                                            Explicit(fol. 63r/24-26) eac dunsæte | be þyrfan gif heom secyning an þæt man | huru frið gif laf to heom læte ·

                                            Text Language: English

                                            Note:

                                            Three erasures have been made from the item at fol. 62v/12 and fol. 64v/6 and 12.

                                             

                                            Decoration: The item begins with a two-line, red, initial ð indented into the text-block, fol. 62r/2-3.

                                            Bibliography:

                                            James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                            Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 23.

                                            Liebermann 1903, pp. 374-79.

                                            Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                            Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                            Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 381-82.

                                               

                                          • Itemfols 63v/1 - 66v/23

                                             

                                            • Title (B.14.44): Rectitudines

                                              Incipit(fol. 63v/1-2) Ð EGEN LAGV IS þæthe sy his boc rihtes ƿyr | de ·

                                              Explicit(fol. 66v/22-23) ˥ eal þæt ic ær be foran | ymbe rehte

                                              Text Language: English

                                              Note: The only alteration to the item is the addition of a 'g' to fol. 66r/5, possibly by Hand 1 or Hand 3b.

                                              Decoration: The item begins with a two-line, red, initial ð indented into the text-block, fol. 63v/1-2.

                                              One-line, two-line and three-line red initials are indented into the beginning of each sub-division of the item in the text-block at fols: 63v/1-2, 10-11 and 20-22, 64r/10, 64v/17 and 25, 65r/12 and 24, 65v/2-3, 5, 11-12, 17, 20 and 25, 66r/3-4, 8, 12, 16, 19 and 23-24, and at 66v/7-8.

                                               

                                              Bibliography:

                                              Gobbitt 2009, pp. 6-22.

                                              Harvey 1993, pp. 1-22.

                                              James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                              Ker 1957, pp. 110-113, Article 24.

                                              Liebermann 1903, pp. 444-53.

                                              Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                              Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                              Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 387-89.

                                                 

                                            • Itemfols 63v-66v/23, margins and empty line space

                                              Explicit(66v/23 and right margin) Be ƿudeƿarde .

                                              Text Language: English

                                              Date: s. xii1

                                              Hand: 3b

                                              Note: Rubrics to Rectitudines.

                                              Rubrics are inserted into the text-block and margins where space can be found at at fols 63v/9 and 20, 64r/9-10 and 24-25, 65r/12 and 24, 65v/4-5, 11, 16, 19-20 and 25, and at 66r/8, 11, 15, 19 and 23.

                                               

                                              Bibliography:

                                               

                                            • Itemfol. 66v/24-69r/14

                                               

                                              • Title (B.14.45): Gerefa

                                                Incipit(fol. 66v/24-26) SESCAD ƿis gerefa sceal ægðær ƿitan ge | hlafordes land riht ge folces ge rihtu | beðam ðehit of ealddagum·

                                                Explicit(fol. 69r/13-14) seðe bet cunne ge | cyðe his mare ·

                                                Text Language: English

                                                Note: Three guide letters are present in the left margin of fol. 68v/ parallel to lines 1, 11 and 16, indicating the letters that the miniator was to supply. In the case of the first, an 'a' the miniator actually supplied an Æ .

                                                Decoration: The item begins with a two-line, red, initial Sindented into the text-block, fol. 66v/24-25.

                                                One-line and two-line red initials are indented into the beginning of each sub-division of the item in the text-block, at fols: 67v/13-14, 19 and 25, 68r/5-6 and 11-12, 68v/1, 11 and 16, and at 69r/6-7.

                                                 

                                                Bibliography:

                                                Gardiner 2006, pp. 260-67.

                                                Gobbitt 2009, pp. 6-22.

                                                Harvey 1993, pp. 1-22.

                                                James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                                Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 25.

                                                Liebermann 1886, pp. 251-56.

                                                Liebermann 1903, pp. 453-55.

                                                Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                                Page 1985, pp. 211-28.

                                                Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                                Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36, 387-89.

                                                   

                                              • Itemfol. 66v/23

                                                Text Language: English

                                                Date: s. xii1

                                                Hand: 3a

                                                Note: Rubric to Gerefa.

                                                Bibliography:

                                                 

                                              • Itemfols 69r/15-69v/2

                                                 

                                                • Title (B.16.14): London, St Paul's Cathedral, List of 'scipmen'

                                                  Incipit(fol. 69r/15-16) [S] cipmen . Ofticc.iiii .Oftillingaham ·ii· | Ofdun mæƿan. ˥ oftolles funtan . i .

                                                  Explicit(fol. 69v/1-2) Of suðmynster .v. Of claccingtu | ne ·ii · Of hæþlege · ˥ ofcodanham · i · :~

                                                  Text Language: English

                                                  Date: s. xii2/4

                                                  Hand: 2

                                                  Note: The first two lines have been indented and the opening letter of the item omitted which creates space for miniaturing to be added, fol. 69r/15-16. However, the anticipated miniaturing was not supplied. Hand 2 respected the ruled space of the folios and produced a very similar mise-en-page to that used by Hand 1 for the earlier items in the manuscript.

                                                  Bibliography:

                                                  James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                                  Kelly 2004.

                                                  Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 26.

                                                  Liebermann, 1900

                                                  Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                                  Richards 1986, pp. 181-184.

                                                  Robertson 1956.

                                                  Wormald 1999, pp. 228-236.

                                                     

                                                • Itemfol. 69v/3-26

                                                   

                                                  • Title (B.18.1): Lists of Kings, Saints, and BishopsWest-Saxon Genealogy

                                                    Incipit(fol. 69v/3-6) [Þ] a ƿæs agangen fram cristes acennednesse | cccc .˥ xciiii . ƿintra þa cerdic ˥ cynric his | sunu coman up æt cerdices oran mid fif sci | pun ˥se cerdic ƿes elesing ·

                                                    Explicit(69v/24-26) þa feng [xxx]  | ƿine to rice þes cyn gæð to cerdice | he heold· ii gear · þa feng ce [xxxxx] e (The item ends ancaphelous at the end of fol. 69v)

                                                    Text Language: English

                                                    Other versions of the text:

                                                     

                                                    Date: s. xii2/4

                                                    Hand: 2

                                                    Note: The first two lines have been indented and the opening letter of the item omitted which creates space for miniaturing to be added, fol 69r/15-16. However, the anticipated miniaturing was not supplied. Hand 2 respected the ruled space of the folios and produced a very similar mise-en-page to that used by hand 1 for the earlier items in the manuscript.

                                                    The item is truncated at the end of Quire 7. Hand 2 seems to have made no attempt to abbreviate or compress the item to fit more into the final lines, nor ahs Hand 2 made use of the margins. It would appear that Hand 2, or somebdy with supervisorial control over this later phase of the mansucript's production, intended to extend the manuscript further. Whether these folios or quires were produced and lost or were not actually produced in the first place is beyond the scope of reasonable speculation.

                                                     

                                                    Bibliography:

                                                    Dickins 1952, pp. 74-80.

                                                    Dumville 1986, pp. 1-32.

                                                    James 1903, pp. 230-31.

                                                    Ker 1957, pp. 110-13, Article 27.

                                                    Lucas 2003, pp. 74-80.

                                                    Richards 1986, pp. 181-84.

                                                    Wormald 1999, pp. 228-36.


                                                  Object Description

                                                  Form

                                                  Form: codex

                                                  Support: Parchment with a consistent texture and hue throughout the manuscript. The hair-side of the parchment is pale yellow and slighlty darker than the off-white coloured flesh-side.

                                                  The only damage to the parchment predating or contemporary to the manuscript's production is a vertical slit in the upper margin of fol. 55. The parchment has suffered abrasion and water damage subsequent to its initial production, particularly on the outer faces of quires. The gutters of the manuscript have been water damaged throughout, although it is particualrly noticable in Quire 7.

                                                  Quire 1 (fols 1-9) and Quire 2 (fols 31-37) are both sixteenth-century additions. The parchment is a much paler hue in both of the additional quires and neither has suffered notable damage, although there are three holes on fol. 8.

                                                  Extent: ix 21 vii 32 iii

                                                  • ca. 186 mm x ca. 116 mm (dimensions of 1r-61v - size of leaves)
                                                  • ca. 188 mm x ca. 119 mm (dimensions of 62r-69v - size of leaves)
                                                  • ca. 186 mm x ca. 116 mm (dimensions of 70r-72v - size of leaves)
                                                  • ca. 137 mm x ca. 78 mm (dimensions of 10r-30v, 38r-69v - size of ruled)

                                                  Foliation and/or Pagination:

                                                  Current foliation is in pencil on the upper right corner of the recto of each folio and runs consecutively from 1 to 72.

                                                  Archbishop Parker's pagination in red crayon:

                                                  • fols 1r-4v are paginated a-h and fols 5r-9v are paginated j-s on both the recto and verso of each folio.
                                                  • fols 10r-30r are only paginated on the recto, and run consecutively from 1 to 41. The missing folio from Quire 2 (originally located between fols 20 and 21) does not disrupt the pagination, indicating that it had already been lost by the sixteenth century. Likewise, Quire 1 must have already been moved to its current position from its original location following Quire 3, as can be seen from the Blaseras item.
                                                  • fols 31 and 33-37 are unpaginated, while fol. 32r is paginated as 44.
                                                  • fols 38r-53r are paginated consecutively on the recto from 43 to 73.
                                                  • 75 is omitted although there is no corresponding loss of a folio, and fols 54r-58r are paginated consecutively on the recto from 77-85.
                                                  • 87 is omitted although there is no corresponding loss of a folio, and fol. 59r is paginated as 89.
                                                  • Number 89 is duplicated on fol. 60r, and fols 60r-70r are paginated consecutively on the recto from 89-109.
                                                  • fols 71r-72v are unpaginated.

                                                  Collation:

                                                  • Quires:
                                                    • fols 1-9: A10 (wants 10), s. xvi.
                                                    • fols 10-30: 16, 28 (wants 6), 38, s. xiiin
                                                    • fols 31-37: B10 (wants 8-10), s. xvi
                                                    • fols 38-69: 48, 58, 68 (3 and 6 are singletons), 78 (3 and 6 are singletons), s. xiiin
                                                    • fols 70-72: C (three additional folios), s. xvi
                                                  • Diagram: The division of the manuscript into five blocks represents additions made to the manuscript in the sixteenth century. See the diagram

                                                  Condition:

                                                  The manuscript is in relatively good condition overall. The original quires have suffered some water damage and abrasion, which is particularly pronounced on the outer faces of each of the quires (fols 10r, 15v, 16r, 22v, 23r, 30v, 38r, 45v, 46r, 53v, 54r, 61v, 62r and 69v). The gutter of the manuscript is also more damaged than the main sheets. A patch of discolouration from water damage runs through the upper margin of fols 27-30 and 38-47, and another through the centre of the text-block from fols 46-49. A vertical slit extends from the upper edge of fol. 55 to the fourth line of the ruling grid; Hand 1 repsects this cut, indicating that the damage predated the writing. The edges or corners have been cut on fols 12, 19, 27, 50, 52, 57, 60, 63, 65 and 66. Seven of these ten folios are one side of the centrefold of a quire, with the exceptions of fols 52, 60 and 63.

                                                  Layout description:

                                                  1. Layout:
                                                    • Layout type: LO22
                                                    • Columns: 1
                                                    • Written Lines: 26
                                                    • Locus: This ruling grid is used for the majority of fols 10-30.
                                                    • Dimensions: ca. 137 x ca. 78; ruled
                                                    • Overview: The ruling grid is produced in hardpoint with single vertical bounding lines. From the extension of horizontal lines across the centrefold it is apparent that the two halves of each bifolium were ruled simultaneously. The ruling is consistently from the hair side of the parchment throughout the manuscript. The writing begins above the topline throughout the manuscript. The extension of the first, third, antepenultimate and final lines to the outer margin and the first and final three lines across the centrefold is consistent throughout most of this part of the manuscript. See diagram. Six instances of subtle variation can be identified:
                                                      • fols 12 and 13, where the fourth line is also extended across the centrefold. Note that these two folios form a single bifolium;
                                                      • fol. 18, where the penultimate line rather than the antipenultimate is extended to the outer margin;
                                                      • fol. 21, where the final line is not extended to the margin;
                                                      • fols 23 and 30, where the penultimate line rather than the antipenultimate is extended to the outer margin and the antipenultimate line is not extended across the centrefold. Note that these two folios form a single bifolium.
                                                  2. Layout:
                                                    • Layout type: LO23
                                                    • Columns: 1
                                                    • Written Lines: 26
                                                    • Locus: This layout is used consistently from fols 38 to 69
                                                    • Dimensions: ca. 137 x ca. 78; ruled
                                                    • Overview: The ruling grid is produced in hardpoint with single vertical bounding lines. From the extension of horizontal lines across the centrefold it is apparent that the two halves of each bifolium were ruled simultaneously. The ruling is consistently from the hair side of the parchment throughout the manuscript. The writing begins above the topline throughout the manuscript. The extension of the first, third, antepenultimate and final lines to the outer margin and across the centrefold is used throughout all of this part of the manuscript. See diagram

                                                  Hand Description

                                                  • Number of hands: 4
                                                  • Summary: The majority of the original text-block is written by Hand 1, which also amends thier own work occasionally, s. xiiin. Hand 2 added two items onto the final folio and provided a small number of alterations to the main text-block, s. xii2/4. Hand 3a supplied rubrics in red and a large number of marginal and interlinear alterations and amendments to the main text-block, s. xii1. Hand 3b appears to be Hand 3a imitaing the aspect of Hand 1; their contribution is primarily the re-structuring of the text-block at the end of Hundredgemot and beginning of I Æthelred, s. xii1.
                                                  • Methods of Alteration: Corrections are primarily by interlinear and marginal addition, although in some instances amendment or erasure of graphs, or erasure and re-writing, are employed. Alterations and additions are usually, but not always, in brown inks.
                                                  • Hand: Production of most of the text-block.
                                                    • Scope: major
                                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                    • Ker reference: Ker 65 SC1
                                                    • Description: fols 10r/1-30v/26 and fols 38r/1-69r/14. The hand is rounded, easily legible and carefully written English Vernacular Minuscule with subtly flourished graphs. The ink used is a dark brown-black, creating a striking contrast with the pale parchment. Mostly insular letter forms are used, although Caroline a and s are highly favoured. The scribe shows a wide orthographic range.
                                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                    • Caroline a formed with a usually sinuous shaft that extends diagonally downwards to the right and ends in a pen-flick upwards along the nib-angle at the base-line. The bowl is approximately three-quarters of the minim height.
                                                    • æ formed from a headless a with the bowl of the e rising from the shoulder and with a flourished pen-flick along the nib-angle.
                                                    • b rounded on the base-line.
                                                    • c ends with a pen-flick along the nib-angle.
                                                    • Insular d with a similar bowl size to ð but a much shorter ascender.
                                                    • The cross-stroke of the e is flourished diagonaly upwards and to the right in a pen-flick along the nib-angle.
                                                    • Insular f with the cross-stroke on the base-line and a deep ascender.
                                                    • Insular g. The down-stroke begins in the middle of the cross-stroke and does not extend above it; the cross-stroke is straight and flat, sometimes with a rounded end to the right. The tail is sinuous and open, ending with a pen-flick diagonally upwards along the nib-angle.
                                                    • The head of the h is treated in the same manner as all ascenders, and the feet end on the base-line as with minims.
                                                    • The foot of the l is rounded on the base-line and is flourished diagonally upwards along the nib-angle.
                                                    • minims: upright with a wedged head, or a curved top for the middle and right minims of the m and n. The foot of the minim ends in a point just below the ruled baseline, and is seriffed up in a pen-flick along along the nib-angle.
                                                    • The o is sometimes pointed on the base-line, and has flattened edges on the upper left and lower right sides.
                                                    • The angles of the p are quite pointed, with the head heavily wedged to the left. The descender is deep and is ended with a sinuous cross-stroke.
                                                    • Insular r with a wedged head. The left stroke treated the same as other descenders and the right stroke the same as the minims.
                                                    • Predominantly Caroline s with a narrow, rounded, head and a short descender below the base-line. Insular s with a deep descender that is swept to the left, and round s are also occasionally present. For the Latin on fol. 59r/13-16 the scribe employs a slightly different Caroline s with a heavier and more rounded head.
                                                    • The t is rounded with a flat cross-stroke that the shaft does not extend through.
                                                    • The hand only uses þ occasionaly. Where present, the ascender and descender are wedged and flourished as with other graphs by this hand. The bowl is roughly two-thirds of the minim height.
                                                    • The hand shows a strong orthographic preference for ð which is formed in a similar fashion to the insular d but with a much larger ascender and pronounced tagging on the cross-stroke.
                                                    • The u is formed as two minims with the foot of the left minim ending in a swept curve rather than an angular pen flourish.
                                                    • The y is usually dotted but not always. The left stroke is heavier than the right, and the foot of the descender is flourished diagonally upwards along the nib-angle.
                                                    • The descender of the ƿ usually ends in a straight point, rather than being swept to the left.
                                                    • The right shaft of the A is swept in a curve to the base line and ends in a pen-flourished flick. The left shaft is diagonal and ends in a sinuous cross-stroke at the base-line.
                                                    • The Æ is similar in form to the A, but with a narrower angle between the shafts. The e part of the graph is identical to that in the æ, but is positioned much higher up on the graph and ruled-space.
                                                    • The C is an open bowl, similar to the second form of E and much more rounded than the O.
                                                    • Two forms of E are used: one is a larger version of the e, the other is a heavy, open bowl with a more rounded form than the O and a thin cross-stroke at the head-line.
                                                    • The F is a larger version of the f with a rounded end to the upper cross-stroke, and the foot of the descender ends in a sinuous cross-stroke.
                                                    • The end of the upper-right stroke of the G is sinuous, the body heavy and the angles pronounced.
                                                    • The H is formed from two very tall ascenders with a more pronounced pen flourish on the foot of the right. The cross-stroke is short, producing a very tall and narrow graph.
                                                    • The N has two ascenders with wedged heads that point to the left. The right shaft descends further below the base-line and is swept to the left. The left shaft ends on the base line. The cross-stroke is diagonal.
                                                    • The O is tall, narrow and pointed.
                                                    • The form of the S is tall and rounded, with the upper bowl flaring wide and the lower bowl being notably smaller.
                                                    • The usual form of the Ð produced by this hand is tall and narrow, with a pronounced sinuous curve to the bowl. The Ð on fol. 10r/19 is unique to the hand, and the shaft and the bowl are each formed with two overlapping strokes to make the lines thicker and appear darker. This is not a later amendment.
                                                    • The U is formed as a V in which the two strokes are curved to taped into a point just below the base-line. The left hand stroke is much taller, and the head has an upwards pen-flourish along the nib-angle.
                                                    • The bowl of the Ƿ is rounded and narrow, and bulges diagonally upwards and to the right. The foot of the descender ends in a sinuous cross-stroke.
                                                    • ascenders: almost as high again as the minim height, usually with wedge-shaped heads, occasionally notched, and with the upper right edge ending in a sharp point.
                                                    • descenders: approximately half as deep again as the minim height, although there is some variation. The tail either ends in a point that is curved to the left, or is seriffed in a pen-flick diagonally upwards and to the right along the nib-angle.
                                                    • Abbreviations:
                                                    • The tironian nota ˥ is used frequently but not consistently by this hand. The descender is short and swept to the left. The top of the shaft extends slightly above the cross-stoke. The cross-stroke is almost flat but has a slight sinuous or downwards curve at the middle.
                                                    • þ with a cross-stroke through it is frequently used as an abbreviation graph for 'þæt'.
                                                    • Final um is often abbreviated to u with a macron.
                                                    • A cross-stroke is used through the ll to abbeviate either 'scillinga' or 'scillingas'.
                                                    • Punctuation:
                                                    • Medially positioned hyphens are used at the end of the lines, usually in the right margin, when a word has been split over two lines. In some, but far from all instances, a hyphen is also present in the left margin of the following line.
                                                    • The punctus is usually positioned above the ruled base-line, but occasionally is positioned on the base-line.
                                                    • Correcting technique: Occasional corrections throughout the manuscript. The main hand occasionally corrects their own work through overwriting or interlinear addition. Most of the interlinear instances, however, are difficult to identify and many are probably the work of Hand 3b.
                                                    • Language: Apart from four lines of Latin (on fol. 59r/13-16), this hand writes exclusively in English. Wormald (1999, pp. 232-36) questions how much experience the scribe had with Old English. Close analysis of the manuscript, however, shows that the main hand was competently copying exemplars and producing a deliberate mise-en-page while amending, correcting and altering the production method to suit changing requirements. The hand is described in Scragg, Rumble and Powell .
                                                  • Hand: Additional items on fol. 69, occasional alterations and additions throughout the manuscript.

                                                     

                                                     

                                                    • Scope: Minor
                                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                    • Description: fol. 69r/15-69v/26, and occasional amendments throughout the manuscript. The hand is open and slightly angular. The graphs are very legible and written with few flourishes. Most but not all of the graphs without descenders finish above the base-line. The scribe has adopted the mise-en-page produced by Hand 1.
                                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                    • The a is Caroline with an upright shaft and a large bowl.
                                                    • The æ is formed from a headless a with a large bowl, and the eattached at the shoulder. The cross-stroke extends a far shorter distance than on the e.
                                                    • Formed with the hands usual form of ascender and a rounded form at the base-line.
                                                    • The top of the c ends in a sinuous flourish and pen-flick along the nib-angle.
                                                    • Insular d with a flat topped ascender.
                                                    • The bowl of the e is angular, and the cross-stroke extends diagonally upwards along the nib-angle in an extended flourish.
                                                    • The cross-stroke of the insular f is positioned above the base-line and the descender is quite shallow.
                                                    • The insular g has an open, sinuous upper bowl and the lower bowl is angular. The tail ends in a pen-flourish extended diagonally upwards along the nib-angle that usually almost closes the lower bowl. The cross-stroke is straight and flat, and the tail begins midway along it and does not extend above it.
                                                    • The h has a regular ascender and an arched bridge between the two shafts. The right shaft is curved in form, and ends in a point just below the ruled line.
                                                    • The l has a regular ascender and a curved foot, ending at the base line with a short pen-flick.
                                                    • The o is taller than it is wide with a pointed top, and some slightly angular corners, particularly at the lower right and upper left edges.
                                                    • The p has a rounded bowl with a straight, deep descender. Except on the final line of the folio where there is a slight pen-flick, the descender usually ends straight and flat.
                                                    • The r is insular, with a deep descender that curls to the left at the base. The foot of the right shaft ends on or above the ruled line with a strong curve to the right.
                                                    • The s is Carloine with an angular head and a shallow descender.
                                                    • The t has an angular curve to the shaft and a flat cross-stroke. The top of the shaft extends through the cross-stroke.
                                                    • The scribe shows an overall preference for þ, which is formed with a large bowl that angles upwards and a heavy wedged head at the top of the ascender, while the foot of the descender tapers into a straight point.
                                                    • The ð is only used occasiaonlly, but is formed the same as the d but with a diagonal cross-stroke through the ascender with pronounced tagging.
                                                    • The u is formed as two minims, with the curve of the left shaft being more pronounced to join the two shafts, and the foot of the right shaft ending in a flatter pen-flick.
                                                    • The y has a curved, heavy shaft on the left, while the curve of the shaft on the right and descender is less pronounced and the line thinner but ending in thicker rounded wedges.
                                                    • The ƿ is angular and ends in a straight, narrow descender. The form is very like the þ.
                                                    • The O is a larger form of the o.
                                                    • The minims are upright, with wedged heads and slight pen-flicks at the foot.
                                                    • ascenders: tall with wedge shaped heads.
                                                    • descenders: generally quite shallow. They usually end either straight and pointed or with a slight turn to the left.
                                                    • Abbreviations:
                                                    • The tironian nota ˥ is used frequently by the hand. The cross-stroke is a sinuous line. The shaft is a curve with a rounded top, ending a little below the base-line with a pen flourish diagonally upwards along the nib-angle.
                                                    • þ with a cross-stroke through its ascender is used as an abbreviation graph for 'þæt' on fol. 69v/11.
                                                    • Occasionaly words ending in 'am' are abbreviated to a with a macron above.
                                                    • Punctuation:
                                                    • Punctuation consists only of a punctus positioned above the base-line.
                                                    • Correcting technique: Throughout, occasional marginal and interlinear additions to the text-block.
                                                    • Language: English. The hand and their contributions are described in Scragg, Rumble and Powell.
                                                  • Hand: Rubrics and additions in the margins and empty line space throughout.

                                                    The hand often appears small and cramped as, in most instances, the rubric additions are squeezed into available space on the folio. The quill is scratchy, and the graphs tend to be rounded with a short and wide proportions. Many of the rubrics are written entirely or mostly in majuscules.

                                                    • Scope: major
                                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                    • Description: fols 10r-66v. Rubrics and additional comments and corrections in the margins, interlinear space and in available line space throughout the manuscript. The final quire has only rubrics; no alterations.
                                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                    • The a is headless, with a large bowl and an almost vertical shaft.
                                                    • The æ is formed the same as the a and e with the curled tail of the eadded onto the foot of the shaft of the a
                                                    • The b has a wedged head and is rounded where the shaft meets the bowl. The upper right corner of the bowl is pointed.
                                                    • The lower arm of the c flares more widely and further to the right than the upper arm. The back of the graph is upright and straight.
                                                    • The d is insular with a steep angle of ascender and a small bowl.
                                                    • The e is rounded with a flaring open lower arm that ends in a pen-flourish along the nib-angle. The cross-stroke extends along the line of the nib angle.
                                                    • The f is insular, with the upper cross-stroke hooking over at the end. The descender is straight and tapered at the end.
                                                    • The tail of the insular g begins its descent a quarter of the way in from the left edge of the straight, flat cross-stroke. The upper bowl of the tail is sinuous and wide, the lower bowl is oval and completely closed.
                                                    • On the h the ascender begins with a round dot at the top, and ends with a slight serif. The left shaft is a minim joined with a thick pen-flick and ending in a curve to the right.
                                                    • The l has a heavy wedged top and a curved foot that ends in a pen-flourish.
                                                    • The minims are very short compared to the ascenders and nib-width. The heads are wedge-shaped, and the feet are curved to the right, sometimes ending in a pen-flourish.
                                                    • The o is rounded with slightly flattened edges on the upper left and lower right.
                                                    • The p has a tapering shaft with a wedged head, and a small round bowl.
                                                    • The left shaft of the r is a straight descender with a slightly bulged head. The right shaft is a minim joined with a narrow pen-flick and ending in a strong curve to the right.
                                                    • The s is Caroline, with a wide and smoothly curved head and a foot tapering and swept to the left.
                                                    • The shaft of the t is a tightly curved bowl, whose top extends above the flat cross-stroke.
                                                    • The þ has a very large ascender with a wedged head and a deep, straight, tapering descender. The bowl is small and angular.
                                                    • The ð is formed as an insular d with a long, tapering cross-stroke.
                                                    • The u is two minims with a stronger right sweep on the foot of the left, connecting the two.
                                                    • The shaft and tail of the dotted y are straight, with rounded head and foot.
                                                    • The head of the ƿ is rounded, the descender straight, and the bowl rounded but narrower than the p and with an upward slant.
                                                    • The shafts of the A are steep, creating a narrow graph. The feet end in curves swept to the right.
                                                    • The Æ is formed similarly to the A but at a gentler angle and with the right shaft slightly more sinuous. The e part is formed as with the æ.
                                                    • The B has an upright back with the cross-strokes at the top of the upper bowl and bottom of the lower bowl extended through to the left.
                                                    • The C is a larger version of the c.
                                                    • The cross-strokes of the E extend to the left of the shaft, with the one on the base-line extending the furthest. The uppermost cross-stroke ends are curved downwards at the right end.
                                                    • The upper cross-stroke of the F is a large, sinuous line and the middle cross-stroke a short sinuous line. The head of the shaft is rounded, and the foot ends in a flat cross-stroke curved upwards in a pen-flick at the right.
                                                    • The G is a narrower version of the O with more pronounced angles and pointed at the foot.
                                                    • The H is formed as two large ls with a curved, tapering cross-stroke between them.
                                                    • The I is a larger version of the minim.
                                                    • The L is a very high ascender, with a cross-stroke added at the base-line, that extends to the left of the shaft and curves upwards in a pen-flick at the right.
                                                    • The M is angular, with the diagonal down and right strokes having heavy wedged heads and tapering shafts, adn the diagonal down and left strokes ending in hooked curves.
                                                    • The N has a sweeping diagonal joining the top of the shorter shaft on the left, with the middle of the right shaft and a descender that has a rounded top and ends with a distinct sweeping curve to the left.
                                                    • The O is a larger version of the o.
                                                    • The P is a larger version of the p.
                                                    • The uppermost cross-stroke of the R extends to the left of the shaft. The foot of the upright shaft is seriffed in a sinuous line that sweeps upwards at the right. The right leg is sinuous and ends in a curved pen-flick.
                                                    • The S is round, with a short arm at the top, and a short and wide lower bowl.
                                                    • The cross-stroke of the T curves upwards in a horned shape at each end. The foot of the shaft ends in a flat cross-stroke that curves upwards to the right.
                                                    • The Ð is formed as the D, but narrower and with a thick cross-stroke that almost joins the shaft to the bowl.
                                                    • The U is a v with straight shafts and a large rounded head on the right.
                                                    • The Y is a larger version of the y.
                                                    • The Ƿ is a larger version of the ƿ but with a flat cross-stroke at the foot of the shaft that curls up to the right in a pen-flourish.
                                                    • ascenders are almost double the minim height, and are usually have a rounded or wedge-shaped top.
                                                    • descenders are of variable depths end either straight or curved to the left.
                                                    • accents: Occasional addition of thin pen-flicks angled upwards and to the right above vowels.
                                                    • Abbreviations:
                                                    • The ˥ is used frequently by the hand. The cross-stroke is a curving line, joining the shaft in a point. The shaft is sinuous and ends below the base-line in a tapered point.
                                                    • þ with a cross-stroke through it is used as an abbreviation graph for 'þæt' on fol. 69v/11.
                                                    • Occasionally words ending in 'um' are abbreviated to u with a macron above.
                                                    • Punctuation:
                                                    • Punctuation consists only of a punctus positioned above the base-line.
                                                    • Correcting technique: Throughout frequent marginal and interlinear additions to the text-block.
                                                    • Language: English. The instances cited by Wormald (1999, pp. 233-234) regarding Hand 1's word division all actually belong to this hand. The hand and its contributions are described in Scragg, Rumble and Powell .
                                                  • Hand: erasure and re-writing of the text-block.

                                                    The aspect of the hand is very similar to that of Hand 1, but individual graphs show strong similarities with Hand 3a. It is most probable that this hand is Hand 3 imitating the aspect of Hand 1 when re-working the introductions of items in the text-block.

                                                    • Scope: minor
                                                    • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                    • Description: fol. 11r/9-11. Erasure and amendment of the beginning of the I Æthelred item, and possibly also the beginning of the laws of Ine in Alfred-Ine on fol. 23r/6. A small number of difficult to diagnose marginal and interlinear additions may be this hand or Hand 1.
                                                    • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                    • Insular a. The bowl is almost as high as the shaft. The foot is swept in a curve to the right.
                                                    • The æ is formed using the a with the e attached at the shoulder.
                                                    • The c is rounded with the join between the upper and lower strokes at the back of the graph forming a round blob.
                                                    • The d is insular with a short ascender of similar height to that produced by Hand 1, but at a steeper angle.
                                                    • The e has an open bowl, with a short cross-stroke extending along the nib-angle.
                                                    • The tail of the insular g begins its descent a quarter of the way in from the left edge of the straight, flat cross-stroke. The upper bowl of the tail is sinuous and wide; the lower bowl is oval and completely closed.
                                                    • The l has a rounded blob at the head of the ascender, and the foot ends in a curved sweep to the right at the base-line.
                                                    • The minim is produced as a short vertical shaft with a wedged head and the foot flourished diagonally to the right along the nib-angle.
                                                    • The p has a tapering shaft with a wedged head, and a small round bowl.
                                                    • The left shaft of the r is a straight descender with a slightly bulged head. The right shaft is a minim joined with a narrow pen-flick and ending in a strong curve to the right.
                                                    • The s is Caroline with a wide and smoothly curved head and a the foot tapering and swept to the left.
                                                    • The þ has a high ascender with a wedged head and, a shallow descender which is tapered and curved to the left at the foot. The bowl is small and rounded but with an upwards angle overall.
                                                    • The dotted y has a wedged head on the right shaft, and the descender is a thin, undecorated line following the nib-angle.
                                                    • ascenders: high with wedged or blobbed heads.
                                                    • descenders: varying depths below the base-line, and ending either straight or tapering and swept to the left.
                                                    • Punctuation:
                                                    • punctus above the base-line.
                                                    • Correcting technique: Amendments to the text-block. A small number of amendments made to the text-block may be corrections by this hand, or possibly by Hand 1, such as the insertion of '˥' on fol. 11r/ 6 and 7.
                                                    • Language: English. Contributions by the hand are described in Scragg, Rumble and Powell.
                                                  Decoration Description

                                                  Red initials, usually one line to three lines in height (with the exception of the six-line, red, initial I on fol. 23/3-8) introducing items and sub-divisions of items, as described in the individual items.

                                                  Red rubrics added by Hand 3a into available line space and margins at the beginning of items and sub-divisions of items throughout the manuscript, as described in the individual items. Although the rubrics are usually associated with points that have had miniaturing on occasion only rubrics or miniaturing are present.

                                                   

                                                    Although somewhat similar under visible light, the red inks used for rubrication and miniaturing appear different under ultraviolet light.

                                                    Additions
                                                      • fol 1r/1-4v/13 II, III Edgars. xvi:
                                                      • fol. 12r/21-26 and right margin;Anglo-Norman poem copied into the text-block. s. xiii:
                                                      • fol. 12v/7-10, left margin: locations mentioned in Alfred and Guthrumcopied out. s. xvi:
                                                      • fol. 17v/upper margin: 'ÆLFREDS LAGE CYNINGES' added to upper margin. Uncertain:
                                                      • fol. 24r/lower margin: Latin note in the corner, trimmed at the right edge 'Matildis bey soror magistri Roberti bey de Abbend [xx] '. s. xiii:
                                                      • fol. 26v/upper margin: 'INES LAGE .' added to upper margin. Uncertain:
                                                      • fol. 28v/6, left margin: lettering marking a sub-division in Alfred-Ine.Uncertain:
                                                      • fols 32r/1-37v/26: beginning of I, II Cnut. The contents of this addition have been struck through in red crayon where they overlap with the original item. s. xvi:
                                                      • fol. 38v/4, left margin: lettering marking a sub-division in I, II Cnut.Uncertain:
                                                      • fol. 40v-42v, lower margin: Latin text.s. xiii:
                                                      • fol. 42v, upper margin: Latin note. Uncertain:
                                                      • fol. 42v/4, left margin: lettering marking a sub-division in I, II Cnut.Uncertain.:
                                                      • fol. 53r/17-18, right margin: 'bocland | folcland', trimmed at the margin. s. xvi:
                                                      • fol. 55r, upper margin: 'refiriat'. Possibly s. xvi:
                                                      • fol. 57r/23-26, right margin: locations mentioned in Alfred and Guthrum copied out. s. xvi:
                                                      • fol. 57v/25, left margin: note identifying item as Laws of EdmundUncertain:
                                                      • fol. 60v/13-14, left margin: Latin note. Uncertain:
                                                      • fol. 69r/16, right margin: 'dunmor' and a vertical line. Uncertain:
                                                      • fol. 69r/21-22, right margin: 'pertinet | sancto paulo' in relation to some of the locations in the scipmen lists. xvii:
                                                      • fol. 69r/23-24, right margin: Latin note. s. xvii:
                                                      • Throughout: locations mentiond in items have been underlined. Uncertain:
                                                    Binding Description

                                                    1991 from the Cambridge workshop of Desmond Shaw, white alum-tawed pigskin on oak boards (Lucas 2003, p. 75).

                                                    Four additional folios added to the beginning of the manuscript, in association with the 1991 binding. A slip of parchment identifying it as '383' and with some of the contents of the manuscript and page numbers listed is affixed to the recto of the fourth of these folios.

                                                    Membrane added at the end of the manuscript following fol. 72 in association with the 1991 binding.


                                                    Additional Information

                                                    Administration Information

                                                    Described by Thom Gobbitt, August 2010. The author thanks Takako Kato for her support and answers to all queries, and Elaine Treharne for discussion of palaeography.

                                                    Surrogates

                                                    Digital surrogate: https://parker.stanford.edu/parker/catalog/mv340ty8592 (accessed 18 July 2018)

                                                    EM Project facsimile

                                                    Microfiche in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003), vol. 11: Corpus Christi College, Cambridge I


                                                    History

                                                    Origin

                                                    Origin:

                                                    Possibly produced at St Paul's Cathedral, London or possibly moved there early in the twelfth-century. The argument for St Paul's rests solely on the addition of the [S] cipmen list to the final folio as the majority of the estates mentioned in the list belonged or had previously belonged to the cathedral.

                                                    Provenance:

                                                     Ker (1957, pp. 110-113), and Wormald (1999, pp. 228-236), identify the hands of a number of antiquarians: Joscelyn, Nowell, and Lambarde, as well as Archbishop Parker.

                                                    Acquisition:

                                                    Bequeathed to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge by Archbishop Parker in 1575.

                                                    Provenance

                                                    London St Paul's

                                                    Bibliography

                                                    Charles-Edwards, Thomas, 'Alliances, Godfathers, Treaties and Boundaries', in Kings Currency and Alliances: History and Coinage of Southern England in the Ninth Century, ed. by Mark A. S. Blackburn and David N. Dumville (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998), pp. 47-62

                                                    Cockayne, Oswald, Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Being a Collection of Documents for the Most Part Never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Science in this Country before the Norman Conquest, Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores, 35, 3 vols (London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1864-66; repr. Wiesbaden: Kraus, 1965)

                                                    Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Stanford University, Parker Library on the Web (http://parkerweb.stanford.edu/parker/; accessed in 2010)

                                                    Dammary, Richard, 'Editing the Anglo-Saxon Laws: Felix Liebermann and Beyond', in The Editing of Old English: Papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference, ed. by D. G. Scragg and Paul E. Szarmach (Cambridge: Brewer, 1994), pp. 251-61

                                                    Davis, R. H. C., 'Alfred and Guthrum's Frontier', English Historical Review, 97 (1982), 803-10

                                                    Dickins, Bruce, The Genealogical Preface to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Four Texts Edited to Supplement Earle-Plummer, Department of Anglo-Saxon Occasional Papers, 2 (Cambridge: Department of Anglo Saxon, University of Cambridge, 1952)

                                                    Dumville, David N., 'The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List: Manuscripts and Texts', Anglia, 104 (1986), 1-32

                                                    Fell, Christine E., 'Some Questions of Layout and Legal Manuscripts', in 'Lastworda Betst' Essays in Memory of Christine E. Fell with Her Unpublished Writing, ed. by Carole Hough and Kathryn Lowe (Donington: Tyas, 2002), pp. 229-41

                                                    Gameson, Richard, The Manuscripts of Early Norman England (c. 1066-1130)(Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1999)

                                                    Gardiner, Mark, 'Implements and Utensils in Gerefa and the Organisation of Seigneurial Farmsteads in the High Middle Ages', Medieval Archaeology, 50 (2006), 260-67

                                                    Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001)

                                                    Gobbitt, Thomas, 'Audience and Amendment of Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383 in the First Half of the Twelfth Century', Skepsi, 2.1 (2009), 6-22; http://www.kent.ac.uk/secl/journals/skepsi/issues/issue%202/index.html

                                                    ---, 'I AEthelred in Felix Liebermann's Die Gesetze Der Angelsachsen and in the Mise en page of Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383', (forthcoming)

                                                    Harvey, P. D. A., 'Rectitudines Singularum Personarum and Gerafa', English Historical Review, 426 (1993), 1-22

                                                    James, Montague Rhodes, Matthew Parker, and A. Rogers, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912)

                                                    Kelly, Susan E., ed., Charters of St. Paul's, London (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)

                                                    Kennedy, A. G., 'Cnut's Law Codes of 1018', Anglo-Saxon England, 11 (1983), 57-81

                                                    Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 65

                                                    Kershaw, Paul, 'The Alfred Guthrum Treaty: Scripting Accommodation and Interaction in Viking Age England', in Cultures in Contact: Scandinavian Settlement in England in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, ed. by Dawn M. Hadley and Julian D. Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), pp. 43-72

                                                    Lawson, M. K., 'Archbishop Wulfstan and the Homiletic Element in the Laws of AEthelred II and Cnut', English Historical Review, 107 (1992), 565-86

                                                    Liebermann, F., ed., Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen , 3 vols (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1903), 1: Text und Übersetzung

                                                    ---, 'Gerefa', Anglia, 9 (1886), 251-66

                                                    ---, 'Matrosenstellung aus Landgütern der Kirche London, um 1000', Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, 104 (1900), 17-24

                                                    ---, ed., Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, 3 vols (Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1903 )

                                                    Lucas, Peter J., '55. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383: Laws', in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003), 11: Corpus Christi College, Cambridge I, pp. 74-80

                                                    Page, R. I., 'Gerefa: Some Problems of Meaning', in Problems of Old English Lexicography: Studies in Memory of Angus Cameron (Regensburg: Pustet, 1985), pp. 211-28

                                                    Richards, M. P., 'The Manuscript Contexts of the Old English Laws: Traditions and Innovation', in Studies in Earlier Old English Prose, ed. by Paul E. Szarmach (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986), pp. 171-92

                                                    Robertson, A. J, Anglo-Saxon Charters, 2nd edn (1939; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956)

                                                    Sawyer, P. H., ed., Textus Roffensis. Rochester Cathedral Library Manuscript A. 3.5, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1957)

                                                    Scragg, Donald, Alexander Rumble, and Kathryn Powell, C11 Database Project(Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, http://www.arts.manchester.ac.uk/mancass/c11database/; accessed in 2009)

                                                    Sisam, Kenneth, 'The Authenticity of Certain Texts in Lambard's Archaionomia1568', in Studies in the History of Old English Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953), pp. 232-58

                                                    Stafford, Pauline, 'The Laws of Cnut and the History of Anglo-Saxon Royal Promises', Anglo-Saxon England, 10 (1982), 173-90

                                                    Storms, G., Anglo-Saxon Magic (The Hague: Nijhoff 1948)

                                                    Thorpe, B., ed., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Rolls Series, 23 (1861)

                                                    Treharne, Elaine M., 'The Production and Script of Manuscripts containing English Religious Texts in the First Half of the Twelfth Century', in Rewriting Old English in the Twelfth Century, ed. by Mary Swan and Elaine M. Treharne (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 11-39

                                                    Whitelock, Dorothy, ed., English Historical Documents, Volume I: c. 500-1042, ed. by D.C. Douglas (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1955)

                                                    ---, 'Wulfstan and the So-called Laws of Edward and Guthrum', English Historical Review, 221 (1941), 1-21

                                                    ---, 'Wulfstan and the Laws of Cnut', English Historical Review, 63 (1958), 433-52

                                                    ---, and George W. Greenaway, eds, English Historical Documents 1042-1189(London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1961)

                                                    Wormald, Patrick, 'Æthelred the Lawmaker', in Ethelred the Unready: Papers from the Millenary Conference, ed. by David Hill (1978), pp. 47-80

                                                    ---, 'The Lambarde Problem: Eighty Years On', in Alfred the Wise: Studies in Honour of Janet Bately on the Occasion of Her Sixty-fifth Birthday , ed. by Jane Roberts, Janet L. Nelson and Malcolm Godden (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1997)

                                                      ---, The Making of English Law: From King Ælfred to the Twelfth Century(Oxford: Blackwell, 1999)