Cambridge, University Library, Ii. 2. 11 + Exeter Cathedral 3501, fols 0, 1-7

Present Location
Repository
Shelfmark

Ii. 2. 11 + Exeter Cathedral 3501, fols 0, 1-7

Medieval Provenance

General Information

Ker

20

Gnuess/Lapidge

15, 257

Summary

The West-Saxon translation of the Four GospelsGospel of Nicodemus and Vindicta Salvatoris copied in s. xi3/4.

The manuscript originally contained a preliminary quire (quire 1), and its final quire (quire 27) had several blank pages. The preliminary quire and the blank pages of quire 27 were filled with a copy of the list of Leofric's gifts, his inscriptions and a series of legal documents in s. xi3/4-xii1.

Five leaves from the preliminary quire and three leaves from the end of the manuscript were cut and bound at the beginning of the Exeter Book(Exeter Cathedral, 3501) before the sixteenth century. The first leaf is not foliated, and the rest are foliated as fols 1-7.

The manuscript items shown below are arranged in the order in which we assume to have been the original order, i.e. before the leaves were cut.

To view the manuscript items arranged as they currently appear click here.

Manuscript Items
  1. ItemExeter fols 7r/1-21, 7r/27-7v/25

     

    • Title (B.16.10.5.1.EM): Exeter: List of Guild Members

      Incipit(Exeter fol. 7r/1-2) On cristes naman ˥ sanctes petrus apostlus an gild scipe is gegaderod on ƿudebirg | lande.

      Explicit(Exeter fol. 7v/24-25) Of axamuða. Godgið. Esgar. Edrid. Ailƿard. Ailƿine. Leoƿine. Sænoð. ƿiking. Herman. | Edƿord. Sceggi. Atli. Sæƿord. Rotƀt. Siƿord.

      Text Language: English. A list in Latin starts at the top of fol. 7v, but stops after three words.

      Date: The mention of Bishop Osbern as a member of the Woodbury guild proves that this brotherhood had been founded before his death in 1103. Gover, Mawer and Stenton 1931-32 date this to 'c. 1100' or '1072-1103', but Förster 1933 suspects that it may be safer to date it to c. 1130 ('The Preliminary Matter', p. 53). Ker 1957 dates it to c. 1100.

      HandHand 2

      Note: A list of the members of the guilds. After each list, a white space has been left, apparently to leave room for the entry of new members. After the first third list on the page, the space has been filled up later on by a manumission (Item 2).

      Bibliography:

      EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 7r

      Earle 1888, pp. 264-66

      Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53 (no. 34)

      Gover, Mawer, and Stenton 1931-32

      Hickes 1703, pp. 18-19

      Ker 1957, item 20, article 5

      Thorpe 1865, pp. 608-10

         

    • ItemExeter fol. 7r/21-26

       

      • Title (B.16.10.6.1): Exeter: Manumissions

        Incipit(Exeter fol. 7r/21-23) ¶ Her cyþ on þissere béc þæt gedmer spernægles sune | hæfð alised leofilde his maga ut of toppesham lande .mid. iiii. ˥ xx. penuge at | Ceolrice

        Explicit(Exeter fol. 7r/25-26) ˥ se þe þis undo. habbe godes curs | ˥ scˉa Maria efre butan ende.

        Text Language: English

        Date: s. xii1

        HandHand 3

        Note: A manumission added in a blank space after the list of guild members (Item 1). 'Notification that Gedmer, the son of Spernægl, redeemed his kinswoman Leofhild from Ceolrice, the reeve of Heording the son of Eadnoð, free of any subjection to the estate of Tomsham, for 24 pence' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 54).

        Bibliography:

        EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 7r

        Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 54 (no. 35)

        Ker 1957, item 20, article 5

        Thorpe 1865, p. 634

           

      • ItemExeter fols 1r/1-2v/2

         

        • Title (B.16.10.1): Exeter: List of Books given by Bishop Leofric

          Incipit(Exeter fol.1r/1-2) Her sƿutelað on ðissere béc hƿæt leofric ƀ hæfð | gedon into sancte petres mynstre on exanceastre

          Explicit(Exeter fols 2r/23-2v/2) ˥ sancte || petre æt bredan si him heofenarice æt broden. ˥ si he ece_ | lice ge niðerod in to helle ƿite.

          Text Language: English. Some book titles in Latin.

          Other versions of the text:

          • Auct D. 2. 16
          • Exeter Cathedral, Charter 2570 (Middle English version, s. xv)

           

          Date: s. xi2: copied before the end of the century, from an original draft of about 1069-72

          HandHand 4

          Note: An inventory of gifts to the church and monastery of St. Peter's, Exeter by Leofric, bishop of Exeter (1050-72).

          Hand 4 later added three items interlinearly in order to update the list. These additions are also found in Auct. D. 2. 16 with exactly the same wording, but only two of them are found in the Middle English version (Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', p. 11).

          Later hands also corrected the text in order to update the list. See the following items (Items 4 and 5).

           

          Decoration: Part of the two-line high decorative letter seems to have been hidden when this leaf was strengthened using a strip of vellum. A later hand re-drew the letter 'H' in black ink. Now the strip of vellum is removed and bound in the Exeter Bookseparately, and the trace of the letter 'H' is visible on the vellum. See also Binding Description.

          Bibliography:

          EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 1r

          ---, Exeter fol. 1v

          ---, Exeter fol. 2r

          Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', pp. 10-30

          Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 44 (no. 1)

          Ker 1957, item 20, article 6

          Robertson 1956, app. I, no. 1

             

        • ItemExeter fol. 2r/6

          Addition: ˥ isagoge | prophirii [ xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx  ]  de dialectica

          Text Language: Latin

          Other versions of the textAuct. D. 2. 16 also has an erasure after 'prophirii', but nothing is written on the top of the erasure.

          Note: The title of a book, 'de dialectica', is added over the erasure after 'prophirii'.

          HandHand 4a

          Bibliography:

           

        • ItemExeter fol. 2r/8&15

          Addition:

           

          Text Language: Latin

          Note: The first correction was presumably overwritten on 'liber Prudentii de matyribus', which had been erased, because three works of Prudentius which were mentioned in the original list as three different items later on became bound up into one volume. The second correction here was overwritten on 'and diadema monachorum', which presumably had gone missing in the library.

          HandHand 4b

          Bibliography:

           

            • Exeter fol. 2r/8: prudentii y monorū. ˥ [ xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx  ]  prudenttii de martyribus on anre bec
            • Exeter fol. 2r/15: ˥ liber aratoris. [ xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx  ]  Liber de sanctis patribus.

            EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 2r

            Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', p. 11

          • ItemExeter fol. 2v/3-25

             

            • Title: Record of a gift to Exeter by Leowine, Canon, s. xii.

              Text Language: Latin

              Note: The grant is made for soul of Osbern, chancellor of William I and afterwards (1072-1103) Bishop of Exeter.

              Hand: Written in 'a large, broad Norman book-hand' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 44). The same scribe also wrote item 7.

              Date: s. xii1

              Bibliography:

              Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 44 (no. 2)

              Ker 1957, item 20, article 7

              Oliver 1861, p. 14

                 

            • ItemExeter fol. 3r

               

              • Title: Abstract of inventory of gifts to Exeter by Leofric

                Text Language: Latin

                Note: Latin abstract of the inventory of gifts to Exeter by Leofric, see above (Item 3).

                Hand: Written by the same hand as the record of a gift to Exeter by Leowine (Item 6).

                Bibliography:

                Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', p. 32 (no. 3)

                Ker 1957, item 20, article 7

                   

              • ItemExeter fol. 3v/1-17

                 

                • Title: Notification

                  Text Language: Latin

                  Date: s. xii. Notification in 1143.

                  Hand: Written in 'a broad Norman hand' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 47).

                  Bibliography:

                  Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 47 (no. 4)

                     

                • ItemExeter fol. 3v/18-28

                   

                  • Title: Notification of an accord made before Robert, Bishop of Exeter, 1150.

                    Text Language: Latin

                    Date: s. xii2

                    Hand: 'Written in a very small, but neat Norman charter hand' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 47).

                    Note: This item was originally in fol. 4v of the preliminary quire, and followed by the current Exeter fol. 0r-v (reversed and upside down) and CUL fol. 1v, which are blank pages.

                    Bibliography:

                    Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 47 (no. 5)

                       

                  • ItemCUL fol. 1r

                     

                    • Title (B.16.10.5): Exeter: Leofric Inscriptions

                      Addition:

                      • CUL fol. 1r/1-4: Hunc textum euangeliorum dedit Leofricus episcopus ęcclesiae | sci petri apƚi in exonia ad utiliatem successorum suorum | [ Si quis illum inde abstulerit subiaceat maledictioni | Fiat Fiat Fiat Confirma hoc deus quod operatus es in nobis. 
                      • CUL fol. 1r/5-8: Ðas boc Leofric ƀ gef sco petro ˥ eallum his æfter | gengum in to exancestre gode mid to ðenienne [gif | hig aenigman ut abrede haebbe he goddes curse ˥ | þraððe eabre halgena

                       

                      Text Language: Latin and English

                      Other versions of the text: Manuscripts with the Leofric inscription:

                      Collated in Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', p. 11 (no. 3).

                       

                      Date: s. xi2

                      HandHand 5

                      Note: Latin and Old English inscriptions at the head of the present recto, originally the verso, record Leofric's gift of this manuscript to Exeter. The anathemas, both Latin and Old English, have been erased, but were read by Frances Rose-Troup. The transcription of the erased part above is by Rose-Troup 1937. See also James's Unpublished Description.

                      Bibliography:

                      EM Project facsimile, CUL fol. 1r

                      Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', p. 11 (no. 3)

                      JamesUnpublished Description

                      Ker 1957, item 20, article 10

                      Rose-Troup 1937

                         

                    • ItemCUL fols 2r-54r

                       

                      • Title (B.8.4.2.1): Gospels: Matthew

                        Title (manuscript): (CUL fol. 2r/1) INIUM SanCtI EUGL SeCUNDuM MATHEUM · · ---

                        Incipit(CUL fol. 2r/2-3) ÆFTER MATHEUS GERECEDNESSE HER IS CNEORIS- | se boc. hælendes cristes dauides suna abraha- | mes suna.

                        Explicit(CUL fol. 54r/12-13) ˥ ic beo myd eoƿ ealle dagas oð ƿeorlde geen- dunge .amen.

                        Text Language: Main text in English. The first words of the passage in Latin are given at the beginning of most of chapters.

                        Other versions of the text:

                         

                        Date: s. xi3/4

                        HandHand 1

                        Note: Each gospel begins on a new leaf, but not, as in other copies, on a new quire.

                        The gospels are divided into a larger number of chapters than in other copies. Chapters are usually preceded by headings in red, which indicate the occasion on which each passage should be read, and the Latin Incipits in black ink. For example (fol. 5v, Matthew, 4:1):

                        sunu on þam me gelicode. Ðis godspel sceal | 

                        on halgan dæg. | 

                        Ductus est iesus in deserto. | 

                        Ða wæs se hælend gelæd

                         

                        The Gospel of Matthew is divided into 102 chapters. The beginning of the Book does not have the Latin Incipit, nor the English heading, which indicate the occasion on which the first passage should be read. The text finishes on fol. 54r/13, and the rest of fol. 54r and fol. 54v are left blank.

                         

                        Bibliography:

                        EM Project facsimile, CUL fol. 2r

                        ---, CUL fol. 40r

                        ---, CUL fol. 46v

                         

                    • ItemCUL fols 55r-83v

                       

                      • Title (B.8.4.2.2): Gospels: Mark

                        Title (manuscript): (CUL fol. 55r/1) INCIPIT EUANGELIUM SECUNDUM MARCUM · |

                        Incipit (Latin): (CUL fol. 55r/2-4)

                        InitiuM Euangelii Jesu Christi filii dei uiui sicut | 

                        scriptuM est in esaia propheta 

                        Ecce mitto angeluM meuM ante facieM tuaM · | 
                         

                         

                        Incipit(CUL fol. 55r/5) Sƿa aƿryten ys on þæs ƿytegan bec isaiam.

                        Explicit(CUL fol. 83v/4-6) Soðlice hig þa farende æghƿar | bodedun · dryhtne myd ƿyrcenduM ˥ ge trymmen- | dre spræce æfter filigenduM tacnum ·

                        Text Language: Main text in English. The first words of the passage in Latin are given at the beginning of most chapters.

                        Text Language: English with Latin rubrics.

                        Other versions of the text:

                        • CCCC 140
                        • Otho C. i, vol. 1 + Otho B. x, fol. 51
                        • Vespasian D. xiv
                        • Royal 1. A. xiv
                        • Bodley 441
                        • Eng. Bib. C. 2
                        • Hatton 38
                        • Mark 1: 27-31, 39-42 also appears in s. xi fragments, the collection of Major J. R. Abbey, Storrington, Sussex, J. A. 3243. See: Ker 1957, item 1. According to Lenker 1999, Abbey's fragments also have the rubric and Latin text before the verse, and several readings in this version agree with those in CUL. Ii. 2. 11.

                         

                        Date: s. xi3/4

                        HandHand 1

                        Note: The beginning of this Book has a Latin Incipit in rubric, but does not have an English heading, which indicates the occasion on which the first passage should be read.

                        The first sentence of the Book commonly seen in other manuscripts, 'Her ys godspellys angyn hælyn des cristed godes suna', is omitted here, but the partly rubricated Latin Incipit includes this sentence.

                        The Book is divided into 55 chapters. The text ends at fol. 83v/6, and the rest of fols 83v and 84r-v are blank.

                         

                        Decoration: The third line of the Latin Incipit, 'Ecce mitto ...', starts next to the decorative initial S of the English Incipit.

                    • ItemCUL fols 85r-132r

                       

                      • Title (B.8.4.2.3): Gospels: Luke

                        Title (manuscript): (CUL fol. 85r/1) INCIPIT EUANGeLIMU SeCUNDuM LUCAM

                        Rubric (initial): (CUL fol. 85r/1-2)

                        Ðis godspel | 

                        ge byrað on midde sumeres mæsse æfen | 
                         

                         

                        Incipit (Latin): (CUL fol. 85r/3) Fuit in diebus herodis regis.

                        Incipit(CUL fol. 85r/4-6) FOR ÐAM þe ƿytodlice manega þohton | þæra þinga raca geendebyrdan þe on | us gefyllede synd .

                        Explicit(CUL fol. 132r/12-14) ˥ hig | ƿæron symle on þaM temple god herigende ˥ hyne | eac bletsigende. AMEN.

                        Text Language: Main text in English. The first words of the passage in Latin are given at the beginning of most chapters.

                        Other versions of the text:

                         

                        Date: s. xi3/4

                        HandHand 1

                        Note: The beginning of this book has both the rubricated English heading, which indicates the occasion on which the first passage should be read, and the Latin Incipit. The Latin Incipit, however, is not the beginning of Luke 1:1; it instead gives the beginning of Luke 1:5. The first sentence, 'LUCAS BOC ÐÆS HALGAN GODSPELLERS', in English is also omitted. The book is divided into 81 chapters. At the end of the book, the rest of fols 132r and 132v are blank.

                        The decorative letter in fol. 100v is missing, and Parker's red pencil has filled in the letter.

                         

                        Bibliography:

                        EM Project facsimile, CUL fol. 85r

                           

                      • ItemCUL fols 133r-173r

                         

                        • Title (B.8.4.2.4): Gospels: John

                          Title (manuscript): (CUL fol. 133r/1) INCIPIT EUVANGELIUM SeCUNDuM IOHANNEM.

                          Incipit (Latin): (CUL fol. 133r/2-3) IN PRINCIPIO ERAT UERBUM. ET UERBUM ERAT APUD DEUM .˒ | et dEUs erat uerbuM. Hoc erat in principio apud dEUm. &rƚ.

                          Incipit(CUL fol. 133r/4-5) ON FRUMAN ƿæs ƿord ˥ þæt ƿord ƿæs myd gode. ˥ god ƿæs | þæt ƿord.

                          Explicit(CUL fol. 173r/18-19) Ic ƿene ne myhte þes myddan eard ealle þa | bec befon;  AMEN ·

                          Text Language: Main text in English. The first words of the passage in Latin are given at the beginning of most of chapters.

                          Other versions of the text:

                           

                          Date: s. xi3/4

                          HandHand 1

                          Note: The beginning of this Book does not have the English heading in rubric, which indicates the occasion on which the first passage should be read; but it has the Latin Incipit in rubric. The Latin Incipit starts with a decorative three-line high letter 'I'. The Book is divided into 64 chapters. At the end of the Book, the rest of fol. 173r/20-23 is blank.

                      • ItemCUL fols 173v/1-193r/17

                         

                        • Title (B.8.5.2): Apocrypha: Gospel of Nicodemus

                          Incipit(CUL fol. 173v/1-2) ON þære halgan ƿrynnysse naman her ongyn | nað þa gedonan þyng þe be uruM hælende ge | done ƿæron.

                          Explicit(CUL fol. 193r/16-17) Sig dryhtne lof | ˥ deofluM sorh a to ƿorulde amen

                          Text Language: English

                          Other versions of the text:

                           

                          Date: s. xi3/4

                          HandHand 1

                          Note: After the introductory paragraph, the main text starts with a red decorative letter on fol. 173v/8:

                          Hyt gelamp to soðon. on þaM nygonteoðan geare | 

                          þe tyberius se mycla casere hæfde anƿeald ofer | 

                          eall romana rice.

                          The rest of the text has no subdivisions.

                           

                          Bibliography:

                          Allen 1968

                          Hulme 1898

                             

                        • ItemCUL fols 193r/19-202r/4

                           

                          • Title (B.8.5.4): Apocrypha: Vindicta Salvatoris

                            Incipit(CUL fol. 193r/19-21) ON TIBĘRIUS DAGUM ÐÆS MICLAN CASERES · Hyt gelamp bynnan lytluM fyrste æfter þaM | þe ure heofenlica hlaford ahangen ƿæs ·

                            Explicit(CUL fol. 202r/3-4) þaM sig ƿuldor ˥ ƿurðmynt ·á· in | ealra ƿorulda ƿoruld · AMEN

                            Text Language: English

                            Other versions of the text:

                             

                            Date: s. xi3/4

                            HandHand 1

                            Note: This item starts immediately after the Gospel of Nicodemus on the same page. There is only one blank line between the two items.

                            There is no subdivision of the text.

                            The text finishes on fol. 202r/4, and the rest of fol. 202r and the rest of the quire were originally left blank. Subsequently, lines 5-23 on 202r and and the rest of the quire were filled with legal documents. See items below (Item 18-). In the sixteenth century, this leaf, except lines 1-4, was cut out and bound with the Exeter Book, i.e., Exeter, Cathedral 3501, now Exeter fol. 5, containing Items 181921 and 22.

                             

                            Bibliography:

                            Assmann 1889, pp. 181-92

                            Warner 1917 for 1915, pp. 88-89

                               

                          • ItemCUL fols 2r-202r interlinear & margin

                             

                            • Title (B.27.4.2.EM): Additions, alterations and glosses

                              Text Language: English

                              Date: s. xi3/4-xii1

                              Hand: See Methods of Alteration below.

                              Note: Numerous alterations and additions in English, many by the main scribes, but also by later scribes. Examples of alterations and additions by later scribes include:

                              • under niman mæge.   (34v/11);
                              • Ðis godspel sceal | on .xxiii. ƿucanminim  ofer | pentecosten . Abeuntes | pharisei coNciliuM iNierunt [ut]  | caperent iɧm iNsermone   (fol. 40r, right margin);
                              • ˥ aset hys dæl myd ly⁁c ceteruM. | þær bið ƿop ˥ toða gristbitung ·  Ðys sceal to haligra fæmnena mæssedæge · (45r/5);
                              • sƿyðran healfe. ˥ þa || tyccenu on hys ƿynstran healfe ð⁁. ð Ðonne cƿið se cyning to ðam þe on his sƿiðran healfe beoð ⁁ Cumað ge ge | bletsode mynes fæder . ˥ on foð þæt ryce (46v/1);
                              • þa forhtedon | hys leorning cnyhtas be hys leorning  ƿurdon  cnyhtum (71r/21).

                               

                              Bibliography:

                              EM Project facsimile, CUL fol. 46v

                                 

                            • ItemExeter fol. 5r/1-10

                               

                              • Title: Manumission

                                Text Language: Latin

                                Date: s. xii1. The release must have occured after the consecration of William de Warlwast as Bishop of Exeter (11 August 1107), before 14 March 1137, the death of Archdeacon Ernold (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 49).

                                Hand: Written in 'a round Norman charter hand'(Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 49).

                                Bibliography:

                                EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 5r

                                Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 49 (no. 14)

                                Hickes 1703, p. 14

                                Thorpe 1865, p. 634

                                   

                              • ItemExeter fol. 5r/11-21

                                 

                                • Title (B.16.10.7): Exeter: Permission to Ring Bells

                                  Incipit(Exeter fol. 5r/11-12) Ƿite ða þe nu beoð ˥ ða te cumene sy. þat yc osbern execestres | biscop gef leaua ðam munche

                                  Explicit(Exeter fol. 5r/19-21) And for þyse | leaua tƿygys elce gere þat ys an palm sunnen deg ˥ cristes | upstigan deg to processium mid þam canunche hygansceule.

                                  Text Language: English

                                  Date: s. xi/xii. The date of the grant is fixed by Abbot Henry's term of office, which is from 11 June 1096 to 18 June 1102 (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 49).

                                  HandHand 6

                                  Note: A notification from Bishop Osbern that the monks of St. Nicholas, Exeter, may continue to ring their bells (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 49).

                                  Bibliography:

                                  EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 5r

                                  Earle 1888, p. 260

                                  Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 49 (no. 15)

                                  Hickes 1703, p. 18

                                  Ker 1957, item 20, article 12

                                  Oliver 1846, p. 13, n. 6

                                  Thorpe 1865, p. 437

                                     

                                • ItemCUL fol. 202v/1-6

                                   

                                  • Title (B.16.10.6.2.1.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                    Incipit(CUL fol. 202v/1-2) Her kið on þissere bec þæt Aluric se canonica of execestre | alisde keinold at Herberde

                                    Explicit(CUL fol. 202v/5-6) Alword cild. | Osƀn clopeles sunˉ Ricard apaules stret ˥ Ricard cheod (text ends imperfectly, but continues to Item 21)

                                    Text Language: English

                                    DateRose-Troup dates the original document to c. 1090, but this item was copied probably nearer to 1133 (1937, p. 367).

                                    HandHand 7

                                    Note: This folio is mutilated. The latter half of this item is now in Exeter fol. 5v/1-5.

                                    Notification that 'Aluric' the canon in Exeter has redeemed ('alisde') Keinold at Herberde.

                                     

                                    Bibliography:

                                    EM Project facsimile, CUL fol. 202v

                                    Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 49-50 (no. 16)

                                    Fox and Dickins, eds 1950, p. 367

                                    Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                    Rose-Troup 1937

                                       

                                  • ItemExeter fol. 5v/1-5

                                     

                                    • Title (B.16.10.6.2.2.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                      Incipit(Exeter fol. 5v/1-2) baldes meg ˥ Andreu ˥ Serle ˥ Saluin ˥ Seric ˥ huberd | Randolf cotes sune. (text starts imperfectly, it continues from Item 20)

                                      Explicit(Exeter fol. 5v/4-5) habbe he godes curs ˥ Scˉȩ Marie ˥ scˉes Pe | tres ˥ ealle Chrites halgena a butan ende. AmeN.

                                      Text Language: English

                                      DateRose-Troup dates the original document to c. 1090, but this item was copied probably nearer to 1133 (1937, p. 367).

                                      HandHand 7

                                      Note: This folio is mutilated. The first half of this item is in CUL fol. 202v/1-6.

                                      Notification that 'Aluric' the canon in Exeter has redeemed ('alisde') Keinold at Herberde.

                                       

                                      Bibliography:

                                      EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 5v

                                      Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 49-50 (no. 16)

                                      Fox and Dickins, eds 1950, p. 367

                                      Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                      Rose-Troup 1937

                                         

                                    • ItemExeter fol. 5v/6-21

                                       

                                      • Title (B.16.10.6.2.3.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                        Incipit(Exeter fol. 5v/6-7) Her kið on þissere bécc þatWillelm bisceop of execestre | cƿæð Ƿulfric pig freoh ˥ saccles of þa lande á Teigtune .

                                        Explicit(Exeter fol. 5v/19-21) Se þe þis efre | undo .ʹ habbe he Godes curs ˥ sancta Maria ˥ ealle cristes ge corena. | á butan ende. AmeN.

                                        Text Language: English

                                        Date: Between 1132 and 1137

                                        HandHand 7

                                        Note: 'Notification of a release by William [de Warelwast], Bishop of Exeter (1107-1137), freeing Wulfric Pig from all manner of subjection to the estate of Teignton, on the day when the bodies of Bishop Leofric and Bishop Osbern were transferred from the old to the new Cathedral' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 50). A list of witnesses follows.

                                        Bibliography:

                                        EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 5v

                                        Earle 1888, p. 260

                                        Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 50 (no. 17)

                                        Hickes 1703, p. 16

                                        Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                        Thorpe 1865, pp. 646-47

                                           

                                      • ItemExeter fol. 4r/1-8

                                         

                                        • Title (B.16.10.6.2.4.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                          Incipit(Exeter fol. 4r/1-3) Her kyð on þissere becc þæt Rotberd apoldraham cƿæð saccles | Willelm his broðer sune of poldraham lande ˥ of elcre cra- | urigge.

                                          Explicit(Exeter fol. 4r/7-8) Se ðe þiss eure undó .ʹ habbe he Godes curs | ˥ sancta Maria ˥ ealle cristes ge corena. á butan ende. AmeN.

                                          Text Language: English

                                          Date: s. xii1

                                          HandHand 7

                                          Note: Notification of a release by Robert of Powderham (the manuscript has 'apoldraham', which stands for 'an Poldraham'), freeing his brother's son, William from all manner of subjection to that estate (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 47).

                                          Bibliography:

                                          EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4r

                                          Earle 1888, p. 257

                                          Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 47 (no. 6)

                                          Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                          Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                          Thorpe 1865, p. 645

                                             

                                        • ItemExeter fol. 4r/9-16

                                           

                                          • Title (B.16.10.6.2.5.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                            Incipit(Exeter fol. 4r/9-10) Her kyð on þissere boc þæt Oter ˥ his cild cƿede saccles Al- | uric þane reda ˥ his ofsp⁁r ing.

                                            Explicit(Exeter fol. 4r/15-16) Se þe þiss mare undó .ʹ habbe he Godes curs ˥ | sancta maria ˥ ealle cristes ge corena. á butan ende. AmeN.

                                            Text Language: English

                                            HandHand 8

                                            Note: Notification of a release by Oter and his son pronouncing Alfric the Red and his offspring 'saccles', i.e., free from any obligation (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 47-48) .

                                            Bibliography:

                                            EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4r

                                            Earle 1888, p. 257

                                            Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 47-48 (no. 7)

                                            Hickes 1703, p. 16

                                            Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                            Thorpe 1865, p. 646

                                               

                                          • ItemExeter fol. 4r/17-21

                                             

                                            • Title (B.16.10.6.2.6.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                              Incipit(Exeter fol. 4r/17-18) Her kyð on þissere becc þæt Gesfrei Foliot cƿeð saccles Semer | Aluredes mæg ˥ eall his ofprig.

                                              Explicit(Exeter fol. 4r/20-21) S [e]  ðe þis undó .ʹ hab | be he godes curs ˥ sancte Maria ˥ ealle cristes halgena á butan ende. AmeN. ('AmeN' is written above the line in order to avoid widow.)

                                              Text Language: English

                                              HandHand 7

                                              Note: Notification of a release by Goeffrey Foliot declaring SæmærAlfred's kinsman, and all his offspring 'saccles' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48).

                                              Bibliography:

                                              EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4r

                                              Earle 1888, p. 258

                                              Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48 (no. 8)

                                              Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                              Thorpe 1865, p. 648

                                                 

                                            • ItemExeter fol. 4r/22-28

                                               

                                              • Title (B.16.10.6.2.7.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                Incipit(Exeter fol. 4r/ 22-23) Her kyð on þissere becc þæt Aðelicc Ricardes sƿuster scirreua cƿæð Hrodolf | Seƿies sune an alfintune saccles of elcre crauigge.

                                                Explicit(Exeter fol. 4r/ 27-28) Se þe þiss undó .ʹ habbe he godes curs . ˥ sancte Marie | ˥ ealle cristes halgena á butan ende. Amen.

                                                Text Language: English

                                                HandHand 9

                                                Note: Notification of a release by Alice, sister of Richard the Sheriff, declaring Hroðolf, Sæwige's son on the manor of Alphington, free of any obligation [to that estate] (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48).

                                                Bibliography:

                                                EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4r

                                                Earle 1888, p. 258

                                                Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48 (no. 9)

                                                Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                                Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                Thorpe 1865, p. 645

                                                   

                                              • ItemExeter fol. 4v/1-6

                                                 

                                                • Title (B.16.10.6.2.8.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                  Incipit(Exeter fol. 4v/1-2) Her kið on þissere béc þæt Waltere ƿulƿordes sune ureode Aþeluue inna | sanctes petres minstre ouer his fæderlic. his feder saule to alisednisse ˥ his.

                                                  Explicit(Exeter fol. 4v/5-6 ) ˥ se þe þiss undo habbe he godes curs ˥ þere hlefdia sancte Marie sanctes | petres ˥ gealle cristes halga á butan ende. AMEN.

                                                  Text Language: English

                                                  HandHand 10

                                                  Note: Notification of a manumission by Walter, Wulfweard's son, freeing ('ureode') 'A ƿeluue' over his father's grave in St. Peter's Minster (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48).

                                                  Bibliography:

                                                  EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4v

                                                  Earle 1888, p. 258

                                                  Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48 (no. 10)

                                                  Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                                  Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                  Thorpe 1865, p. 632

                                                     

                                                • ItemExeter fol. 4v/7-15

                                                   

                                                  • Title (B.16.10.6.2.9.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                    Incipit(Exeter fol. 4v/7-8) Her kyð on þissere bec þæt Gesfræg feala sune ge bohte Gidiþ Edƿiges | docter at Alpsta on ƿunforda. ˥ at Neæle pynceune to .x. sciƚƚ .

                                                    Explicit(Exeter fol. 4v/14-15) ˥ Se þe þiss ún dó . hæbbe he godes curs . ˥ sancta maria . ˥ sanctes petres. ˥ ealle cristes halgena á butan ende. Amen.

                                                    Text Language: English

                                                    HandHand 11

                                                    Note: Notification of manumission by Geoffrey, son of Feala (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48).

                                                    Bibliography:

                                                    EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4v

                                                    Earle 1888, p. 259

                                                    Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48 (no. 11)

                                                    Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                                    Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                    Thorpe 1865, pp. 631-32

                                                       

                                                  • ItemExeter fol. 4v/16-24

                                                     

                                                    • Title (B.16.10.6.2.10.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                      Incipit(Exeter fol. 4v/ 16-17) Her kyþ on þissere béc þæt huberd on clist cræfede anne ƿifman þe | Edit hatte liuegeres ƿif. mid un rihte.

                                                      Explicit(Exeter fol. 4v/ 23-24 ) ˥ þeos spæc ƿæs innan Viƚƚmes bure | de buhuz on excestre ge spæce.

                                                      Text Language: English

                                                      Date: s. xi2

                                                      HandHand 12

                                                      Note: Notification that Hubert of 'Clist' had claimed [as his slave] one woman Edith, the wife of 'Liuerger' (Liofgar), without justification, and had to give her up again, because [it could be proved that] Liueger had redeemed ('alisde') her from Bishop Geoffrey in a proper way for 30 pence. This cause was argued in the chamber of William de Buhuz in Exeter (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48).

                                                      Bibliography:

                                                      EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4v

                                                      Earle 1888, p. 259

                                                      Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48 (no. 12)

                                                      Hickes 1703, p. 18

                                                      Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                      Thorpe 1865, p. 633

                                                         

                                                    • ItemExeter fol. 4v/25-31

                                                       

                                                      • Title (B.16.10.6.2.11.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                        Incipit(Exeter fol. 4v/ 25-26 ) Her kyð on þissere bec þæt Willelm de la brugere cƿæð saccles Ƿul- ƿærd ðane ƿebba inna tune . ˥ út of tune of elce crafigge.

                                                        Explicit(Exeter fol. 4v/ 30-31) Se þe þis mare undó .ʹ habbe he cristes curs . ˥ sancte Maria ˥ ealle | cristes halgena á butan ende. Amen.

                                                        Text Language: English

                                                        HandHand 13

                                                        Note: Notification of a release by William 'de la Brugere', delaring Wulfweard the Weaver free of any subjection (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48).

                                                        Bibliography:

                                                        EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 4v

                                                        Earle 1888, p. 259

                                                        Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 48 (no. 13)

                                                        Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                                        Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                        Thorpe 1865, p. 648

                                                           

                                                      • ItemExeter fol. 6r/1-6

                                                         

                                                        • Title (B.16.10.6.2.12.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                          Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/1-2 ) Her cyð on þissere bec þæt bruning cola sunu ge bohte roting | æt coleƿyne ˥ æt leofa.

                                                          Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/5-6) ˥ hebbe he gode [s]  curs þe þis | æfre undo. AMEN.

                                                          Text Language: English

                                                          HandHand 14

                                                          Note: Notification that Bruning, son of Cola, has bought Roting from Colewyn and Leofa, free of all subjection to the estate of 'Seft-beara', i.e., Shebbear, near the Torridge (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 50 ).

                                                          Bibliography:

                                                          EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                          Earle 1888, p. 261

                                                          Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 50 (no. 18)

                                                          Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                          Thorpe 1865, p. 635

                                                             

                                                        • ItemExeter fol. 6r/7-14

                                                           

                                                          • Title (B.16.10.6.2.13.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                            Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/7-9) Her kyð on þissere bec þæt teolling ge bohte ælƿord stamera | ˥ edƿine his broðor æt coluƿine to. vii· mancson to cepe | ˥ to tolle.

                                                            Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/12-13) ˥ hæbbe he godes curs | þe þis æfre undo á on ecnisse Amen.

                                                            Text Language: English

                                                            Date: Dated in Gover, Mawer, and Stenton 1931-32, p. 560, 'a. 1097'.

                                                            HandHand 2

                                                            Note: Notification that Teolling has bought Ælword the Stammerer and Edwine his brother from Coluwin for seven mancuses (toll included), Ælword the portreeve talking the toll [on the King's account] (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 50 ).

                                                            Bibliography:

                                                            EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                            Earle 1888, p. 261

                                                            Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 50 (no. 19)

                                                            Gover, Mawer, and Stenton 1931-32

                                                            Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                                            Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                            Thorpe 1865, p. 633

                                                               

                                                          • ItemExeter fol. 6r/14-18

                                                             

                                                            • Title (B.16.10.6.2.14.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                              Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/14-15) Her kyð on þissere bec þæt leoƿine lundenisca ˥ [e] aldgið his ƿif | ge bohton ælfilde æt touie to feoƿer ˥ sixtuge penegon

                                                              Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/18) ˥ dunstan peoning.

                                                              Text Language: English

                                                              HandHand 2

                                                              Note: Notification that Leowine of London and Ealdgið his wife have bought Ælfhilde [free] from Tovy for 64 pence, -- Ælfric 'Hals' taking the King's toll in Tovy's chamber (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 50-51).

                                                              Bibliography:

                                                              EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                              Earle 1888, p. 262

                                                              Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 50-51 (no. 20)

                                                              Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                              Thorpe 1865, p. 635

                                                                 

                                                            • ItemExeter fol. 6r/19-25

                                                               

                                                              • Title (B.16.10.6.2.15.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/19-20) Her kyð on þissere bec þæt ƿulƿord bohte leouede æt hierdinge | eadnoðes sun [e]  ƿið .v. sciƚƚ to cepe ˥ to tolle.

                                                                Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/25) he godes curs a butan ende. Amen

                                                                Text Language: English

                                                                HandHand 2

                                                                Note: Notification that Wulword has bought 'Leouede' [free] from Hierding the sone of Eadnoð, for 5 shillings (toll included) -- Garwig the reeve of Topsham, taking the [King's] toll (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51).

                                                                Bibliography:

                                                                EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                                Earle 1888, p. 262

                                                                Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51 (no. 21)

                                                                Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                Thorpe 1865, pp. 648-49

                                                                   

                                                              • ItemExeter fol. 6r/26-30

                                                                 

                                                                • Title (B.16.10.6.2.16.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                  Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/26) Her kið on þissere bec þæt regenere bohte alfiðe at regenolde þaM muneke |

                                                                  Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/30) ˥ habbe godes curs þe hit æfre undo. amen

                                                                  Text Language: English

                                                                  HandHand 15

                                                                  Note: Notification that Regenhere has bought Ælfgyð from Regenweald, monk of [the Austin Priory of] Cowick, for 5 shillings, free of any subjection to the estate of CowickAlfric Hals taking King's toll (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51). A list of witnesses follows. This item and Item 36 use same form of curse ('habbe the Godes curs, þe hit æfre undo').

                                                                  Bibliography:

                                                                  EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                                  Earle 1888, p. 262-63

                                                                  Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51 (no. 22)

                                                                  Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                  Thorpe 1865, p. 637

                                                                     

                                                                • ItemExeter fol. 6r/31-33

                                                                   

                                                                  • Title (B.16.10.6.2.17.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                    Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/31) Her kið on þissere bec þæt seƿine pinca bohte hine silfne

                                                                    Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/33) ˥ habbe he godes curs þe hit æfre undo. amen.

                                                                    Text Language: English

                                                                    HandHand 15

                                                                    Note: Record that Sæwine Pinca bought himself [free] for 10 shillings from William, -- Ælfric Hals taking the [King's] toll. All the witnesses' names are found either in Item 34 ('Tailifer') or in Item 35 ('Edmær', 'Edwine', 'Rodberd'). Both Item 35 and this item are witnessed also 'by all the hundred of Cowick' (see also Item 40).

                                                                    Bibliography:

                                                                    EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                                    Earle 1888, p. 262

                                                                    Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51 (no. 23)

                                                                    Hickes 1703, p. 15

                                                                    Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                    Thorpe 1865, p. 632

                                                                       

                                                                  • ItemExeter fol. 6r/34-36

                                                                     

                                                                    • Title (B.16.10.6.2.18.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                      Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/34) Her cyð on þisse bec þa Osbern ƀ halgode sancta Maria portic

                                                                      Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/36) ˥ hæbbe he godes curs . ˥ ealra halgena þ [e]  þis æfre undo. amen.

                                                                      Text Language: English

                                                                      Date: between 1072 and 1103

                                                                      HandHand 15

                                                                      Note: Notification that when Bishop Osbern [of Exeter, 1072-1103] consecrated the 'portic' of St. Mary, Folcard freed Æþelwineand his offspring, and allowed them to choose a master wherever they liked (compare Item 40Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51). No witness mentioned. This item is written in a very small hand. It looks as if this item had been entered subsequently between Item 36 and Item 38.

                                                                      Bibliography:

                                                                      EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                                      Brown 1903-37, vol. 2, pp. 89-90

                                                                      Earle 1888, p. 263

                                                                      Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 51 (no. 24)

                                                                      Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                      Thorpe 1865, p. 634

                                                                         

                                                                    • ItemExeter fol. 6r/37-41

                                                                       

                                                                      • Title (B.16.10.6.2.19.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                        Incipit(Exeter fol. 6r/37) Her kyþ on þissere béc þæt liueger se bacestere on excestre alysde an ƿifman Ediþ hatte

                                                                        Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/41) ˥ Se þe þis undo . hæbbe he Godes ƿræðe a butan ende amen.

                                                                        Text Language: English

                                                                        Date: The manumission must have executed during the lifetime of Bishop Geoffrey of Coutances, who died on 4 February 1093.

                                                                        HandHand 16

                                                                        Note: Notification that 'Liueger' the Baker in Exeter has redeemed ('alisde') from Bishop Geoffrey [of Coutances] for 30 pence a woman named Edith, the daughter of Godric Cocraca, and her offspring, free of any subjection to the manor of 'Clist' which in those days was held by Bishop Geoffrey (see also Item 29). Witnesses: Roger at BovyHerbert at Clys; etc (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52).

                                                                        Bibliography:

                                                                        EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6r

                                                                        Earle 1888, p. 263

                                                                        Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52 (no. 25)

                                                                        Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                        Thorpe 1865, p. 637-38

                                                                           

                                                                      • ItemExeter fol. 6v/1-6

                                                                         

                                                                        • Title (B.16.10.6.2.20.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                          Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/1 ) Her cyþ on þissere bec þæt huscarl lisde hine silfne ƿið ealuƿb

                                                                          Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/ 5-6 ) godes curs he | habbe þe hit æfre undo. Amen.

                                                                          Text Language: English

                                                                          HandHand 17

                                                                          Note: Notification that Huscarl redeemed ('lisde') himself from 'Ealuwb:' for 40 pence. Swein and Wulfig received the toll on the King's account and as proxies of Særle who was then portreeve. Witnesses: Alword the portreeve, and his son Ealdred, and his brothers Osbern and Walter; etc (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52).

                                                                          Bibliography:

                                                                          EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                          Earle 1888, p. 263

                                                                          Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52 (no. 26)

                                                                          Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                          Thorpe 1865, pp. 635-36

                                                                             

                                                                        • ItemExeter fol. 6v/7-15

                                                                           

                                                                          • Title (B.16.10.6.2.21.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                            Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/17) Her cyð on þ [is] sere bec þæt leoƿine feala sunu bohte hine silfne. ˥ his ofspri [ng

                                                                            Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/ 14-15) ˥ habbe he godes cur [s]  | ˥ ealra halgena a þe þir æfre undo.

                                                                            Text Language: English

                                                                            HandHand 18

                                                                            Note: Notification that Leowine the son of Feala, bought himself and his offspring free from WulfwardÆlfric's son, at St. Jacob's Church, for half a pound. Leowine and his offspring were allowed to choose a master where they liked (compare Item 37). Alword the portreeve and AlwineDirling's son-in-law (or brother-in-law), took the toll on the King's account. The manumission was witnessed by the hundred moot of Exeter (compare Item 36Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52).

                                                                            Bibliography:

                                                                            EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                            Earle 1888, p. 264

                                                                            Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52 (no. 27)

                                                                            Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                            Thorpe 1865, p. 636-37

                                                                               

                                                                          • ItemExeter fol. 6v/16-20

                                                                             

                                                                            • Title (B.16.10.6.2.22.EM): Exeter: Manumissions

                                                                              Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/16) Her cyð on þissere bec þæt ediþ leofrices docter locces bohte hi silue ˥ hire ofspring

                                                                              Explicit(Exeter fol. 6r/19-20) ˥ habbe he godes curs. ˥ ealra halgen | þe hit æfre undo.

                                                                              Text Language: English

                                                                              HandHand 19

                                                                              Note: Notification that Edit, daughter of Leofric Locc, bought herself and her offspring [free] from Huberd for 24 pence (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52).

                                                                              Bibliography:

                                                                              EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                              Earle 1888, p. 264

                                                                              Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52 (no. 28)

                                                                              Ker 1957, item 20, article 13

                                                                              Thorpe 1865, p. 636

                                                                                 

                                                                            • ItemExeter fol. 6v/21-24

                                                                               

                                                                              • Title (B.16.10.10.1.EM): Exeter: Sales of Land

                                                                                Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/21-22) Ðis sinte ðage ƿitnisse of þaM lande ðe alfric páz bohte at freƿines laue ˥ at su [nu]  on pauls stret.

                                                                                Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/24) Rocgere [xxx xxx xxx] .

                                                                                Text Language: English

                                                                                HandHand 20

                                                                                Note: List of the witnesses that can testify to the land bought by Alfric Paz from Freawine's widow and her son in Paul Street [Exeter]. Similar documents are Items 43 and 44, and in the Leofric Missal, fol. 11v, where the witnesses are called 'anburge' (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52).

                                                                                Bibliography:

                                                                                EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                                Earle 1888, p. 256

                                                                                Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52 (no. 29)

                                                                                Ker 1957, item 20, article 14

                                                                                Warren 1883, p. 8

                                                                                   

                                                                              • ItemExeter fol. 6v/25-26

                                                                                 

                                                                                • Title (B.16.10.10.2.EM): Exeter: Sales of Land

                                                                                  Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/25) Ðis sinte ðage ƿitnisse of ðam ƿiman ieduue ialdit reinfreis ƿif

                                                                                  Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/26) ˥ alger lifledˉs al wue seuar a ƿif. adeles

                                                                                  Text Language: English

                                                                                  HandHand 21

                                                                                  Note: List of witnesses for a woman Ieduue Ialdit [i.e., Eadgifn Ealdgyð], wife of Reinfrei. A second woman's name, something like and of Ieleire (?), is added by the same hand above the line (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 52). The nature of the transaction for which they are to testify is not specified.

                                                                                  Bibliography:

                                                                                  EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                                  Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', pp. 52-53 (no. 30)

                                                                                  Ker 1957, item 20, article 14

                                                                                     

                                                                                • ItemExeter fol. 6v/27-29

                                                                                   

                                                                                  • Title (B.16.10.10.3.EM): Exeter: Sales of Land

                                                                                    Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/27) Ðis sint· þage geƿitnisse of þaM lande þe Alfric bohte

                                                                                    Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/29) ˥ Særle ˥ Pain namen þat toll.

                                                                                    Text Language: English

                                                                                    HandHand 22

                                                                                    Note: List of the witnesses that can testify to the land bought by Alfric from Ailword -- Særle and Pain taking the [King's] toll (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53).

                                                                                    Bibliography:

                                                                                    EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                                    Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53 (no. 31)

                                                                                    Ker 1957, item 20, article 14

                                                                                       

                                                                                  • ItemExeter fol. 6v/30-32

                                                                                     

                                                                                    • Title (B.16.10.10.4.EM): Exeter: Sales of Land

                                                                                      Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/30) Of þaM lande but [e]  gestete.

                                                                                      Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/32) ˥ Godric puddiges [x]  ˥ oþre ge noge ˥ Gileƀ ná þæt to

                                                                                      Text Language: English

                                                                                      HandHand 22

                                                                                      Note: Notice about the land 'but[e] gestete' 'outside the East Gate' [of Exeter] which Alfric brought from Richard, --- Gilbert taking the [King's] toll (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53).

                                                                                      Bibliography:

                                                                                      EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                                      Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53 (no. 32)

                                                                                      Ker 1957, item 20, article 14

                                                                                         

                                                                                    • ItemExeter fol. 6v/33-34

                                                                                       

                                                                                      • Title (B.16.10.10.5.EM): Exeter: Sales of Land

                                                                                        Incipit(Exeter fol. 6v/33) Of þaM lande a martines stræt þe Alfric

                                                                                        Explicit(Exeter fol. 6v/34) ˥ Gildeƀ naM þæt toƚƚ

                                                                                        Text Language: English

                                                                                        HandHand 22

                                                                                        Note: Notice about the land 'a Martines stræt', i.e., in St. Martin's Lane, [Exeter], bought by Alfric from [the lady] RagenildeGilbert taking the [King's] toll (Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53).

                                                                                        Bibliography:

                                                                                        EM Project facsimile, Exeter fol. 6v

                                                                                        Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 53 (no. 33)

                                                                                        Ker 1957, item 20, article 14


                                                                                      Object Description

                                                                                      Form

                                                                                      Codex

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Support: Mainly parchment

                                                                                      • CUL fols i-viii (all blank leaves) and 203-14 are post-medieval paper flyleaves: fols i, ii and 213, 214 are from the most recent binding; fols iii-viii and 203-212 are earlier paper flyleaves.
                                                                                      • CUL fol. 202 in parchment has been cut, and repaired with a modern parchment (see 202v).
                                                                                      • CUL fols ix and x are from sixteenth-century accounts which were used in the sixteenth-century binding: a parchment (ixr-xv) and a paper leaf (ixv-xr) are pasted together.
                                                                                      • The original leaves cut and now bound with the Exeter Book (Exeter fols 0, 1-7) are all parchment.
                                                                                      • Remainder of manuscript (CUL fols 1-202) is well-prepared, yellowish and thick parchment. The surface is smoothed possibly by pumice. Hair and flesh sides are hard to distinguish, but it appears to be arranged HHFF, as Ker 1957 says.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Extent:

                                                                                      • ca. 317 mm x ca. 225 mm (dimensions of all except CUL fol. 1 - size of leaves)
                                                                                      • ca. 313 mm x ca. 215 mm (dimensions of CUL fol. 1 - size of leaf)
                                                                                      • ca. 250 mm or 242 mm x ca. 140 mm (dimensions of CUL fols 2-87, 96-202 - size of written space)
                                                                                      • ca. 263 mm or 252 mm x ca. 170 mm (dimensions of CUL fols 88-95 (Quire 13) - size of written space)
                                                                                      • [unknown, as the ruling is not visible towards the bottom of the page] mm x 134 mm (dimensions of CUL fol. 1 - size of written space)

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Foliation and/or Pagination:

                                                                                      • CUL fols 1-202 are foliated in pencil in the right-hand upper corner.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 3r-173r are also paginated on the rectos in the middle of the top margin, partly in red pencil, 3-343.
                                                                                      • On fols 2r-173r a modern hand has also marked the chapter beginnings of the Four Gospels in the margins, such as 'Cap 11'. The upper right corners of the recto pages are marked with the name of the Gospel and the Chapter number, such as 'Matt 11'; the upper left corners of the verso pages are marked with the Chapter number, such as '11'.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 173v-202r (Gospel of Nicodemus and Vindica Salvatoris) are paginated on both rectos and versos in the middle of the top margin, 344-401, by the same hand as that which paginated up to 173r.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 173v-193r (Gospel of Nicodemus) are also paginated in the upper outer corners of both rectos and versos, 1-40.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 193v-202r (Vindica Salvatoris) are also paginated in the upper outer corners of both rectos and versos, 2-19. The text of Vindica Salvatoris begins on 193r that is paginated as 40, as it is p. 40 of Gospel of Nicodemus. See above.
                                                                                      • The relevant leaves within the Exeter Book: the first leaf has no foliation, and the rest is foliated 1-7.
                                                                                      Collation

                                                                                      Quires:

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Current structure of quires:

                                                                                       

                                                                                      • CUL fols i, ii are modern paper flyleaves from the most recent binding (blank).
                                                                                      • CUL fols iii-viii are earlier paper flyleaves (blank).
                                                                                      • CUL fols ix and x are from the sixteenth-century accounts which were used in the Parkerian binding: a sheet of parchment (ixr-xv) and a sheet of paper (ixv-xr) are pasted together. Fol. ix was the pastedown, fol. x was the flyleaf.
                                                                                      • CUL fol. 1 is now a singleton, with the s. xi2 inscriptions written down and the book's seal attached on the recto side, which was originally verso.
                                                                                      • Quires 2-26 (CUL fols 2-199): 2-118 (fols 2-81), 126 (fols 82-87), 13-268 (fols 88-199). 3 and 6 in Quire 19 (fols 138 and 141) are a pair of half-sheets. Quire 21 (fols 152-59) has a pair of half-sheets too: fols 154 and 157; the second outer sheet of Quire 21 (fols 153 and 58) originally had holes on it, and was stitched.
                                                                                      • Quire 27 (fols 200-202): now three singletons. Part of fol. 202 was cut out, and bound in the Exeter Book, and the remain of this leaf is repaired with a modern parchment. Stubs of fols 200 and 202 (which is the repaired parchment) are visible in the following order: stub of 202, 200, 201, stub of 200.

                                                                                      See the diagram.

                                                                                      • CUL fol. 203r carries the offset of existing 6 line text in fol. 202v. It is probably natural to consider that the offset happened after the mutilation of fol. 202. Fol. 203r also has red pencil lines associated with Parker.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 203v-10r: blank leaves, earlier paper flyleaves, paginated on recto side in black.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 210v-11r have text in Latin in modern hand. They also have red lines by a Parkerian pencil.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 211v-12v: red lines by a Parkerian pencil.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 213-14: blank leaves: paper flyleaves from the most recent binding, paginated on recto sides, 421 and 423 in the upper right corner.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Structure of quires under the Parkerian binding (1566):

                                                                                      • Current CUL fol. ix was the pastedown, and fol. x was the flyleaf. They are from the sixteenth-century accounts: one parchment (ixr-xv) and one paper (ixv-xr) are pasted together.
                                                                                      • CUL fol. 1 must have been a singleton by 1566, with the s. xi2 inscriptions written down on the verso side (which is now recto). As the CUL shelf mark no, 'Ii-2-11' is written on the left inner margin of the page with inscriptions, and as it would have been more natural for the shelf mark not to be written in the inner margin, this leaf was probably bound correctly with the blank page as its recto. The library book seal was often pasted on the pastedown of the upper cover (see for example,CUL Ii. 2. 4, or Hh. 1. 10), but in the case of CUL. Ii. 2.11, we can assume that it was pasted on the verso side of this leaf, as there was no space on the pastedown.
                                                                                      • Quires 2-26 (fols 2-199): same as the current collation.
                                                                                      • Quire 27 (fols 200-202): three singletons. Part of fol. 202 has been cut, and bound in the Exeter Book. The remnant of fol. 202 in CUL Ii. 2. 11 has been repaired with a modern parchment.
                                                                                      • CUL fols 203-212 (pp. 401-420): end leaves.
                                                                                      • The original flyleaf and pastedown are now kept separately with the back cover of the old binding. The recto side of the flyleaf and the pastedown are paginated in the middle of the top margin as 431 and 423.

                                                                                      For Quire 27 to the end, see the diagram.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Original structure of quires (before the leaves which are currently in the Exeter Book were removed):

                                                                                      • Original Quire 1 contained Items 1-10 (Exeter fols 7, 1-3, 0, CUL fol. 1 in that order): 16; Exeter fols 2 and 3 are a bifolium. CUL fol. 1 was reversed. The current recto with the inscription and the book seal was originally the verso.

                                                                                      This quire evidently formed a preliminary quire in which a copy of the list of Leofric's gifts and his inscriptions were added in the later stage. A similarly-designed preliminary quire can be found in Auct. D. 2. 16 (2719). The inscription of Auct. D. 2. 16 appears on fol. 6v, i.e., the verso of the last leaf of the preliminary quire. This is the same relative position as the inscription of CUL fol. 1 now recto but originally verso.

                                                                                      The structure of the original Quire 1 can be reconstructed from the shape and size of wormholes. According to Ker 1957, three wormholes near the bottom of the fol. 1 (the folio with inscription) do not recur on the paper leaves (the original pastedown and flyleaves), but correspond, if the leaf is reversed, to holes in Exeter fols 0 (now upside down), 1-3, and 7 and the holes in CUL fols 2 and 3. The size of the holes, as compared with those on the other leaves, shows that CUL fol. 1 came between Exeter fol. 0 and CUL fol. 2. The holes on Exeter fol. 7 are larger than on other leaves, so that this leaf must have preceded the others.

                                                                                      • Original Quires 2-26 contained Items 11-17 (CUL fols 2-199): same as the current collation.
                                                                                      • ​Original Quire 27 contained Items 16-46 (CUL fols 200-01, CUL fol. 202 + Exeter fol. 5 [this leaf was cut in the sixteenth century], Exeter fols 4, 6 in that order): 275.

                                                                                      Exeter fol. 6v is in part difficult to read, because the parchment is so thin that the letters are visible from the other side of the page.

                                                                                      See the diagram.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Signatures: Signatures a-z and A-C are given in the first halves of quires with folio numbers within the quires, such as 'a1', in pencil.

                                                                                      Catchwords: There is no use of catchwords.

                                                                                      Condition

                                                                                      The manuscript is in good condition. Five leaves from the preliminary quire and three leaves from the end of the manuscript were cut and bound in the Exeter Book. Leaves at the beginning and end of the manuscript have wormholes, which allowed Ker to reconstruct the original order of the leaves. Some of the leaves had holes on the original vellum (CUL fols 37, 44, 140, 156, 185, 186, 192, etc). CUL fol. 158 has been repaired by sewing.

                                                                                      Layout Description

                                                                                      1. Layout:

                                                                                      • Layout type: LO09
                                                                                      • Columns: 1
                                                                                      • Written Lines: 23
                                                                                      • Locus: CUL fols 2-87, Quires 2-12
                                                                                      • Dimensions: ca. 242-250 mm (from the top line to the bottom line) x ca. 133-139 mm (from inside of the double bounding lines to the inside of the double bounding lines); ruled
                                                                                      • Overview: Ruling with a stylus. Some pricking holes are visible. The ruled lines in some of the two folios of bifolium exactly match: for example, fols 5 and 6 (4 and 5 of Quire 1), or fols 29 and 30 (4 and 5 of Quire 5). Fols 68 and 71 (3 and 6 of Quire 10) are also interesting, because all but the top and bottom lines are ruled twice in these two folios. These suggest that a full sheet was folded into two before they were ruled. Double bounding lines on both sides of the frame are about 138 mm apart, and they do not extend beyond the first and the last horizontal ruled lines. The horizontal ruled lines do not extend the inner lines of bounding lines on both sides. See diagram.

                                                                                      2. Layout:

                                                                                      • Layout type: LO10
                                                                                      • Columns: 1
                                                                                      • Written Lines: 26
                                                                                      • Locus: CUL fols 88-95, Quire 13
                                                                                      • Dimensions: ca. 253 mm x ca. 161 mm; ruled
                                                                                      • Overview: Ruling with a stylus. Some pricking holes are visible. The ruled lines of the two folios of the inner sheet (fols 91-92) match. A full sheet was folded into two before the leaves were ruled. Double bounding lines on four sides of the frame extend to the ends of the page. The length of the horizontal lines is irregular; but they are regular in the sense that they all extend beyond the outer vertical bounding lines for the inner side of the page, and they all start somewhere between the double bounding lines for the outer side of the page. See diagram.

                                                                                      3. Layout:

                                                                                      • Layout type: LO11
                                                                                      • Columns: 1
                                                                                      • Written Lines: 23
                                                                                      • Locus: CUL fols 96-202, Quire 14-27
                                                                                      • Dimensions: ca. 242 mm x ca. 133 mm; ruled
                                                                                      • Overview: Ruling with a stylus. Some pricking holes are visible. The ruled lines of the two folios of the same sheet (fols 99 and 100, for example) match. A full sheet was folded into two before the leaves were ruled. Double bounding lines on four sides of the frame extend to the ends of the page. The horizontal lines are from the inner vertical bounding line to the inner vertical bounding line. See diagram.

                                                                                      Sometimes the text runs into the 24th line, i.e., space outside the ruled written area.


                                                                                      Hand Description

                                                                                      Number of Hands
                                                                                      • Number of hands: at least 30
                                                                                      • Summary: Four Gospels, the Gospel of Nicodemus and Vindicta Salvatoriswere written by one scribe (Hand 1). Preliminary materials and materials added at the end of the manuscript are partly in good twelfth-century book-hands, and partly in rough mixed scripts: 21 different hands copied the main items in English; four different hands copied the main items in Latin (Items 67 8 9 and 18); at least one hand added some items in margins, a few later hands possibly corrected the main items (see Items 45 and 17).
                                                                                      • Methods of Alteration: Corrections and alterations appear consistently from the beginning to the end. Methods of cancellation include physical erasure of letters by scratching off the surface of the parchment and underlining. Methods of addition include overwriting letters on the top of erasure, interlinear additions with or without caret mark, and additions in the margin. Many by the main scribe, but some of them were by later hands.
                                                                                      • Hand: 1
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 1; SC1
                                                                                        • Description: This scribe copied the whole of the main text, i.e., Four Gospels (Items 11121314), the Gospel of Nicodemus (Item 15) and Vindicta Salvatoris (Item 16): CUL fols 2r-202r/4. A typical and well-written product of the Exeter scriptorium of s. xi2. Latin and Old English scripts are usually distinguished. This scribe tended to avoid a widow by putting the last word of a sentence outside the usual written space at the end of a page and enclosing the word by drawling lines to its left-hand side and its bottom at fols 42r, 56r, 66v, 67r, 102r, and so on. At fol. 136r, the final two lines are longer than usual, and there is an extra line outside the usual writing space, so that John 2 starts at the top of fol. 136v. At Mark 1:29, fols 56r/13, the scribe intended to add the Latin incipit in one line, but it did not fit. He put the final two words next to lines 14 and 15.

                                                                                          Display CUL fols 2r46v and 85r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in the rounded insular form; Caroline a is used for Latin, but sometimes the insular a appears in Latin too.
                                                                                        • The e component of æ is often written above the line, and its bowl sits partly on the head of a and partly on the top of the following letter, particularly s or r.
                                                                                        • d is round and low, with a very short ascender; Latin d has a straight ascender.
                                                                                        • Low e with a straight back often shows a small horn to the left and a short tongue. This insular e sometimes appears in Latin, but Latin eis usually round-backed. High e ligatures are common.
                                                                                        • ę is sometimes used for æ in some proper names (ex: 'galilęę') and in Latin text.
                                                                                        • f is insular, its tongue is on the writing line; Caroline f is used for Latin.
                                                                                        • The loop of g closes in a round bowl, and the vertical stroke joins the horizontal bar at the left; Caroline g has a round lobe on the top, and the loop starts from the middle of the lobe and finishes open to the left.
                                                                                        • Insular h has the second limb turned outwards; Caroline h has the second limb turned inwards;
                                                                                        • The feet of minims finish with a serif to the right, and the upturn beginning-stroke of a minim often touches the back of a preceding a.
                                                                                        • The shape of ƿ is similar to that of p, but the lobe of ƿ is elongated, whereas that of p is round;
                                                                                        • Insular r for English; Caroline r for Latin.
                                                                                        • Long s arches at the top and finishes with a serif to the left below the writing line, and insular low s; the foot of Caroline long s ends at the writing line with a serif.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight head.
                                                                                        • The backstroke of ð tends to be longer than the ascenders of other letters, and its bowl is smaller than it usually looks in the vernacular Exeter script.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight descender with a serif curving to the left.
                                                                                        • The left stroke of y is thicker than the right one. The right stroke curves to the left, and the letter is almost always dotted.
                                                                                        • H in majuscule has a distinct serif on its left foot, and a long thin stroke from right up to left down at its top, which starts with a serif to its left. The right foot is straight and curves slightly to left.
                                                                                        • ascenders are split-topped and wedged.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders and bend to the left in a rather distinctive manner.
                                                                                        • The scribe uses a long, thin slanting line to stress vowels. He also stresses both characters in double vowels such as aa or ee or  with accents when they occur in proper nouns both used for people and places.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations:
                                                                                        • The crossbar on þ for the abbreviation of æt for þæt sometimes does not transects the upstroke of the letter þ, and it is attached to the right.
                                                                                        • tironian nota has a flat head and the descender curves to the left.
                                                                                        • The macron is a straight horizontal line.
                                                                                        • Punctuation:
                                                                                        • hyphens are used to split a word at the end of a line on a level with the base line, and are unusually long.
                                                                                        • punctus are usually placed above the base line.
                                                                                        • Sometimes a punctus is used in the middle of the line and a hyphenis used at the end of a chapter (fol. 110r)
                                                                                        • Ligatures:
                                                                                        • High e ligatures are common.
                                                                                        • Other manuscripts: This hand also might have helped copying the following manuscripts:

                                                                                          The attribution to this scribe, however, is controversial (See Drage 1978, pp. 157-59; Corradini 2008, p. 136; Lenker 1999Treharne 2009).

                                                                                      • Hand: 2
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 4 and article 13: nos 18-21, 26, 27; SC3
                                                                                        • Description: This scribe copied Items 13233 and 34 (Exeter fol. 7r/1-21, 27-36; Exeter fol. 7v; Exeter fol. 6r/7-25). All written in a round, broad English hand. The size of script is relatively small. According to Ker 1957, this is 'a script of eleventh-century character and appears to date from s. xiex or xi/xii'.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 7r and Exeter fol. 6r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in the rounded insular form; the Caroline form of a with an open top is used for Latin. The head of a is vertical and wavy.
                                                                                        • Sometimes the e component is slightly higher than the a component, but there is no use of distinctly tall e in æ.
                                                                                        • d has a round back with a short up-stroke, and the top of the up-stroke sometimes tapered backward to the right, and very distinct from the shape of ð. The insular form of d is also used for Latin.
                                                                                        • e has a straight back, and is horned. It also has a tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • The insular form of f has its tongue on the writing line.
                                                                                        • g is in insular form with straight top, the loop of g closes in a round bowl, and the vertical stroke mostly joins the horizontal bar at the left. When the vertical stroke joins the horizontal bar at the middle, the stroke is straight down. The lower loop is larger than the upper loop.
                                                                                        • h is insular. The arch is well-balanced, and its top is almost flat. The limbs finish with distinct serifs to the right, and the ascender is serifed to the left.
                                                                                        • The feet of minims finish with serifs to the right. The letters inmand u are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • The foot of l curls up to the right, and its ascender is wedged.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe, and is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • Insular r is used for English, and short Caroline r for Latin.
                                                                                        • Long s arches at the top and finishes with a straight line below the writing line, and insular low s also finishes with a straight line. Double s is often spelt with two types of s in either order.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight head; the back-stroke joins the head at the middle.
                                                                                        • ð has a curved ascender from left to right, with the top slightly curved to right. The crossbar sometimes has a downward hook at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight descender with a straight ending. The ascender has a wedge, sometimes split in the middle with a serif curving on the left.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a straight descender and an elongated lobe.
                                                                                        • y is hardly used, but when it appears, it has a dot.
                                                                                        • ascenders are generally not very high, straight and sometimes with a wedge.
                                                                                        • descenders are generally short and straight, without any serifs.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations:
                                                                                        • The descender of the tironian nota curves to the left.
                                                                                        • The abbreviated 'þæt': the ascender of þ often has a serif to the left, and the crossbar has an upper serif at the right end.
                                                                                        • 'Amen' is often abbreviated with Am and a macron.
                                                                                        • The macron is often used.
                                                                                        • us abbreviation.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used on the line and the middle of line.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: On Exeter fol. 7v, 8th list: missing words are inserted above the line with a caret mark.
                                                                                      • Hand: 3
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule with some characteristics of Caroline minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 5
                                                                                        • Description: This scribe copied Item 2 (Exeter fol. 7r/21-26). Written by a very similar hand to that of Hand 2, but at a somewhat later date, to fill up the space left free after the third list of members of a guild.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 7r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in the Caroline form with a straight back. Sometimes there is no head; when there is one, the head is a very short and thin line.
                                                                                        • The a component in æ is in the round insular form; there is no distinctively tall e, although e is slightly taller than a.
                                                                                        • d has a round back with a short up-stroke, and the top of the up-stroke tapers backward to the right.
                                                                                        • e has a round back, and sometimes has a tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • The insular form of f has its tongue on the writing line.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is in insular form with a straight top, the lower loop is open, and the end of the loop tapers to the right. The vertical stroke goes straight down from the left end of the horizontal stroke.
                                                                                        • h is insular. The arch is pointed, and its highest point is above the right limb. The limbs finish with distinct serifs to the right, the ascenders has serifs to the left.
                                                                                        • The feet of minims finish with serifs to the right. Letters inm and u are distinguishable. The length of minims is irregular.
                                                                                        • The foot of l has a serif to the right, and its ascender has a serif to the left.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and its descender is seriffed to the left. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • Insular r is used.
                                                                                        • Long s arches at the top and finishes with a straight line often below the writing line, curving slightly to the left, and with a tapered end.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight, tapered head; the back stroke joins the head at the left.
                                                                                        • ð is similar in shape to d, with a crossbar. The crossbar has an upward serif at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight stroke with a serif to the left at the top and with a straight, tapered ending. The descender is relatively short.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a straight descender which curves slightly to the left at the end and an elongated lobe.
                                                                                        • y is dotted. The first stroke is thicker than the second stroke.
                                                                                        • The ascenders are relatively short, and sometimes have serifs to the left.
                                                                                        • descenders are relatively short, and often curve slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations:
                                                                                        • The descender of tironian nota curves to the left and tapers.
                                                                                        • In the abbreviation for 'þæt': the crossbar of þ has an upward serif to the right.
                                                                                        • The macron is used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctus is on the line; the item start with a paraph mark.
                                                                                      • Hand: 4
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 6; SC2
                                                                                        • Description: This scribe copied Item 3 (Exeter fols 1r/1-2v/2). Compared to the script of the main texts in CUL Ii. 2. 11, this is a slightly smaller, narrower and later variety of the Exeter type of script. The steep ducts of the letters and round aspect of the script show Carolingian influence. One page contains 23 lines, the same as the main texts. The scribe uses minuscules in the insular form for English, and Caroline minuscule for Latin.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fols 1r1v and 2r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in the rounded insular form; Caroline a,used for Latin, has a fully developed head, but is still open at the top-left.
                                                                                        • Sometimes e is slightly higher than a in the combination æ, but there is no use of distinctly tall e in æ.
                                                                                        • d is round and low with a very short ascender which is almost horizontal. Latin d h a straight ascender with a wedge at the top, and feet at the bottom.
                                                                                        • e, with a straight back, often shows a small horn to the left and a short tongue. Latin e is usually round-backed.
                                                                                        • ę is sometimes used for æ in Latin.
                                                                                        • f is insular; its tongue is on the writing line, and the descender curves to the left. Caroline f, with a serif to the right on the writing line, is used for Latin.
                                                                                        • The loop of g closes in a small bowl, and the vertical stroke joins the horizontal bar somewhere between the middle and the left end. The insular g is sometimes also used in Latin words. Caroline g has a round lobe on the top with a tongue from the upper right, and the loop starts from the middle of the lobe and finishes open with a serif to the left.
                                                                                        • Both limbs of insular h have serifs to the right; the second limb of Caroline h turns inwards. In both forms, the ascenders are wedged at the top.
                                                                                        • The feet of minims finish with a serif to the right. The letters inmand u are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe, and its descender often has a foot with a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • Insular r for English; Caroline r for Latin.
                                                                                        • Long s arches at the top and finishes with its descender curving to the left; insular low s is also used; the downstroke of Caroline long sends at the writing line with a serif.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight head. The back-stroke meets the middle of the head-stroke.
                                                                                        • The long, straight, slanting backstroke of ð begins with a downward serif, and its crossbar has an upward serif to its right.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight descender, which begins with a wedge and finishes tapered with a slight curve to the left.
                                                                                        • The shape of ƿ is similar to that of p, but the lobe of ƿ is elongated, and the descender finishes tapered with a slight curve to the left without a foot.
                                                                                        • y is dotted. The left stroke of y often finishes with a upward serif.
                                                                                        • ascenders are wedged; sometimes the top is split in two.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than the ascenders and often finish tapered and bending to the left. The descender of p with a foot is exceptional.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: Abbreviations are frequently used:
                                                                                        • The descender of tironian nota curves to the left and tapers.
                                                                                        • The crossbar of þ for 'þæt' is short and straight.
                                                                                        • ƀ for 'biscop'
                                                                                        • xpˉe denotes 'Christe'
                                                                                        • xpˉi denotes 'Christi'
                                                                                        • sciˉs denotes 'sanctis'.
                                                                                        • eugƚm denotes 'euangelium'.
                                                                                        • apƚor denotes 'apostolorum'.
                                                                                        • Also properɧ for 'het' and macrons are used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctus is mostly on the writing line, sometimes above the line.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: ct and st ligatures are used. The back of the t in ligature tends to be straight.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: The scribe has inserted omitted phrases interlinearly with caret marks in Exeter fol. 1r-v; in Exeter fol. 2r, he or one has erased some words and overwritten his other corrections.
                                                                                      • Hand: 4a
                                                                                        • Scope: Minor
                                                                                        • Script: Caroline minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: n.a.
                                                                                        • Description: This hand was responsible for Item 4, a correction to Item 3. Smaller hand than that of Hand 4 who copied Item 3. The bodies of letters are smaller, and ascenders are shorter. All letter shapes are similar to those of Hand 4, but there is no wedge of ascenders.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 2r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • The feet of d and minims have no distinct serif.
                                                                                      • Hand: 4b
                                                                                        • Scope: Minor
                                                                                        • Script: Caroline minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: n.a.
                                                                                        • Description: This hand was responsible for Item 5, corrections to Item 3. Smaller hand than that of Hand 4 who copied Item 3. The bodies of letters are smaller, and ascenders are shorter. All letter shapes are similar to those of Item 3, but the ascenders are not wedged. The ink is smudged and slightly lighter in colour than that of the main text.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 2r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • The abbreviation mrˉib: for 'matrybus' is used and L denotes 'Liber'.
                                                                                        • The final s of 'patribus' has a head which closes.
                                                                                      • Hand: 5
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle and Caroline minuscule for Latin
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 10
                                                                                        • Description: This scribe wrote Item 10 (CUL fol. 1r). Written in a neat and regular English hand. Caroline letters are sometimes used in names in English text.

                                                                                          Display CUL fol. 1r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in the rounded insular form; Caroline a is used for Latin.
                                                                                        • The e component of æ is slightly higher than the a component; the back of the e is straight.
                                                                                        • d is round and low with a short ascender which curves towards the right at the top. Latin d has a straight ascender with a wedge at the top.
                                                                                        • e has a straight back, often shows a small horn to the left and has a short tongue. Latin e is round-backed.
                                                                                        • ę is used in Latin.
                                                                                        • The insular form of f has its tongue on the writing line, and the descender is straight or curves to the left only slightly, while the head-stroke is round. Caroline f is used for Latin, with a clear bar and the descender extending below the writing line.
                                                                                        • The loop of insular g closes in a round bowl, and the vertical stroke joins the horizontal bar at the middle. Caroline g has a round lobe on the top with a tongue from the upper-right, and the loop starts from the middle of the lobe and finishes open with a serif to the left.
                                                                                        • h is insular in English, both limbs with serifs to the right, and the ascender wedged at the top. There is no minuscule h in Latin, but the minuscule Caroline h has its second limb turned inwards.
                                                                                        • The feet of minims finish with a serif to the right. The letters inmand u are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • In Latin, p has a round, closed lobe, and its descender has a foot with a serif to the right (there is no p in English text).
                                                                                        • Insular r for English; Caroline r for Latin.
                                                                                        • In English, long s arches at the top and finishes with a descender curving to the left below the writing line. The descender of an insular low s also slightly curves to the left; the foot of Caroline long s ends at the writing line with a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • t, both in English and Latin, has a round back with a straight head; the back-stroke joins the head at the middle.
                                                                                        • The slanting back-stroke of ð begins with a downward serif and warps slightly. Its crossbar extends from the backstroke, and does not cross it.
                                                                                        • There is no þ.
                                                                                        • There is no ƿ.
                                                                                        • There is no y.
                                                                                        • ascenders are relatively short and wedged.
                                                                                        • descenders are relatively short and often finish tapered and bending to the left.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: Abbreviations are more frequently used in Latin than in English. In English, ƀ for 'biscop' is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: et ligature e and t share the back, which is a slanting line from the upper left to the bottom right.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: The anathemas, both Latin and Old English, have been erased probably by a later hand.
                                                                                      • Hand: 6
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: Caroline minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 12
                                                                                        • Description: The scribe wrote Item 19 (Exeter fol. 5r/11-21) 'Written in a peculiar, unequal English hand of a strongly Carolingian character. The short shafts of the letters, their ample spacing, a wide system of lineation, and some peculiar letter-forms, like the unusual g, seem to be out of keeping with the traditions of the Exeter school' (Förster 1933, 'Preliminary', p. 49). Some texts have been overwritten on the top of physical erasure.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 5r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is Caroline, the top is developed and high, whereas the bow is small and oval.
                                                                                        • æ is not used.
                                                                                        • d has a straight back, which is relatively long.
                                                                                        • Most examples of e have a round back, but some have a straighter back than others. Some have a tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • No ę is used.
                                                                                        • f is Caroline in form; its foot stops on the writing line or slightly below the line.
                                                                                        • g is insular with a straight top. The vertical stroke joins the horizontal bar at the middle, and the stroke makes a 'c'-like curve first. The loop of g is sometimes left open, and sometimes closes in a round bowl. The lower loop is smaller than the upper loop.
                                                                                        • h is Caroline: the left limb is straight and sometimes finishes with a serif to the right; the right limb curves inwards to the left.
                                                                                        • minims are short, and serifs and vertical lines are thick. The letters imn and u are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • The bow of p is closed and square, and the stem is short. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is Caroline.
                                                                                        • Caroline short s, the vertical line ending on the writing line or slightly below it, sometimes with a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • The back of t is slightly round, and the vertical line finishes by curling upward. Straight-backed when it is ligatured with s. The back-stroke joins the head at the middle, and usually does not cross the head.
                                                                                        • ð has a curved ascender from left to right, with the top slightly curved to right. The crossbar crosses through the ascender and has a downward hook at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight vertical line without a wedge or a serif. The descender ends on the writing line. The lobe is square.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a straight descender which goes below the writing line, with an elongated lobe. The shape of the lobe is distinct from that of p.
                                                                                        • Rounded y: the two strokes forming the upper part of the letter are diverging and curved. The descender goes straight down, with its end curving to the left. The dot is large and distinct.
                                                                                        • ascenders are not very tall. The top of the ascender tends to be thicker, but it is not wedged.
                                                                                        • descenders are very short.
                                                                                        • There is no use of accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: ˥ is shaped as a number '7', and the vertical line goes below the writing line.
                                                                                        • The pro abbreviation is used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Periods are used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: The st ligature is used.
                                                                                      • Hand: 7
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle with strong Caroline influence
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: The hand copied:

                                                                                          Written in a large, broad English hand. Förster ('Preliminary', 1933) says that Item 23 is in different but very similar hand. All the features of the letter forms described here, however, are common in Item 23 and other Items. Item 23 must have been written by the same hand, but in different ink.

                                                                                          Display CUL fol. 202vExeter fol. 5v and Exeter fol. 4r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is Caroline the top is open and well developed.
                                                                                        • The a component of æ is an oval shape with a small tongue from the left top, and the e component has a slanting back from left to right with an extremely small lobe, almost like a dot.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back with an ascender, its top sometimes with a serif to the right. The Caroline d is used in a name;
                                                                                        • e has a straight back, often with a horn to the left and a tongue to the right. The top of the letter is sometimes not completely closed. The round-backed e is also used occasionally, particularly in names, but not exclusively.
                                                                                        • ę is used occasionally.
                                                                                        • f is insular. The top line shapes an arch, with a serif on the right; its tongue is slightly above the writing line; the descender curves to the left at the end.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is insular with a straight top, the lower loop is open, and the end of the loop sometimes tapers to the right. The vertical stroke goes down straight from somewhere between the left end and the middle of the horizontal stroke. Caroline g is used for names, with a round lobe on the top with a tongue from the upper-right corner, and the loop starts from the right hand corner of the lobe and finishes open with a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • Insular h has both limbs with serifs to the righ; Caroline h has the second limb turned inwards. The ascenders of both forms are slightly wedged at the top.
                                                                                        • The feet of minims have upward serifs to the right, and letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and its foot has a serif to the left. It is distinguishable from ƿ in its shape of lobe and ascender.
                                                                                        • r is insular with the descender curving to the left at the end, and the right foot has a serif to the right. A Caroline r is used in 'Barthoƚ'; this r has a longer foot, which goes beyond the writing line.
                                                                                        • Two kinds of s are used: the insular s, with its descender curving to the left at the end, and the Caroline long s with a small head, and its descender curving to the left. The point where the head joins the descender varies from the top of the descender to the half-way down.
                                                                                        • Insular t has a round back. The vertical line joins the horizontal line at the middle or slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • ð is similar to d in its shape, with the short ascender almost straight up (slanting only slightly from left to right), and the top tapered backward to the right. The crossbar has a upward serif to its right end.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight stroke with a small wedge at the top and tapered to the left at the end. The descender is shorter than the ascender.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a straight descender which curves to the left at the end, and an elongated lobe.
                                                                                        • The first stroke of dotted y is thicker than the second stroke.
                                                                                        • ascenders are not very tall. The top of ascenders often has a small wedge.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than the ascenders, and sometimes turn to the left.
                                                                                        • a line-shaped accent sometimes on ae.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations:
                                                                                        • scaˉscęˉscˉes: the macron in the shape of capital letter 's'.
                                                                                        • 2-shaped abbreviation for ri
                                                                                        • macron curves upward to the right.
                                                                                        • thæt with a þ and a crossbar.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Periods and punctus elevatus are used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: No ligatures are used.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: Extensive interlinear addition in Item 22 and Item 25.
                                                                                      • Hand: 8
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: The scribe copied Item 24 (Exeter fol. 4r/9-16). 'Written in a careful, broad reformed insular hand' (Förster 1993, 'Preliminary', p. 47).

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 4r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in Caroline form with the open top. The length of the head varies: sometimes very short, looking like a tongue; and sometimes relatively developed and long. The left end of the head, however, does not extend beyond the left end of the lobe. The lobe is often triangular.
                                                                                        • æ is not used.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back with an ascender, whose top sometimes flicks to the right. The ascender is at 45º.
                                                                                        • e has a straight back, often with a horn to the left and a tongue to the right. The round-backed e is also used occasionally, particularly in names.
                                                                                        • f is insular, the top line shapes an arch, with a serif on the right end. Its tongue is on the writing line. The descender curves and tapers to the left at the end.
                                                                                        • Insular '5'-shaped g with straight top, the lower loop is open. The vertical stroke goes down straight from somewhere between the left end and the middle of the horizontal stroke. Its position is high: half of the lower loop is above the writing line.
                                                                                        • Insular h has both of its limbs with serifs to the right. Caroline h has the second limb turned inwards. Both ascenders are slightly wedged at the top. The scribe seems to have been careful at distinguishing two kinds of h. The scribe wrote a Caroline h for 'hir', and then corrected this error (Exeter fol. 4r/9).
                                                                                        • The feet of minims have upward serifs to the right, and letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and its foot sometimes has a serif to the right. It is distinguishable from ƿ in the shape of its lobe and ascender.
                                                                                        • r is insular, with the descender curving to the left at the end, and the right foot with a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • Two kinds of s are used: the insular s with its descender curving to the left at the end, and Caroline long s with a small head and the descender curving to the left. The point where the head joins the descender varies from the top of the descender to half-way down.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight head; the back-stroke joins the head towards the left.
                                                                                        • ð has a round back, and is similar to d. The crossbar has a serif at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a straight stroke with a wedge at the top. The descender tapers to the left at the end. The descender is shorter than the ascender;
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe, sometimes shaped as a triangle, and an ascender, which finishes with a curve to the left. It is distinguishable from p because p has a round lobe and its foot sometimes has a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • y is dotted, and both limbs slightly turn over to the right at the top.
                                                                                        • ascenders are relatively short and wedged.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders, and their ends usually taper to the left.
                                                                                        • There are some accents on o and a.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: þæt abbreviation; prˉ
                                                                                        • Punctuation: punctus and punctus elevatusHyphens are used at the end of lines to hyphenate words.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: The t of st ligature has a straight back.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: A missing letter 'r' is inserted interlinearly in 'ofspring'.
                                                                                      • Hand: 9
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Written in a smaller script, with a Caroline influence. Copied Item 26.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 4r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is occasionally insular but mostly Caroline, and its loop over the top varies in its length. The lobe of a is usually triangular.
                                                                                        • æ was used only once;
                                                                                        • d has a round back, and its ascender tapers to right.
                                                                                        • e has a straight back, often with a horn to the left and a tongue to the right. The round-backed e is also used occasionally.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular; the top line shapes an arch, with a serif on the right. Its tongue is slightly above the writing line. The descender curves to the left at the end.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is insular with a straight top and open lower loop. The vertical stroke goes down straight from the left end of the horizontal stroke.
                                                                                        • The insular form of h has both limbs straight with serifs to the right. Caroline h is also used, with the second limb round, turning inwards and finishing below the writing line. Both ascenders are wedged at the top.
                                                                                        • The feet of minims have upward serifs to the right, and letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and its descender is straight. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is insular, with the descender curving to the left at the end, and the right foot with a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • Two kinds of s are used: the insular s, with its descender curving to the left at the end, and Caroline long s with a small head and a straight descender finishing slightly below the writing line to the left.
                                                                                        • Insular t has a round back, though the shape of the round lobe is rather irregular: sometimes it is triangular, and sometimes it is elongated. The vertical line joins the horizontal line somewhere between the middle and the left end.
                                                                                        • ð has a round back, and is similar to d. The crossbar has an upward serif at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a small lobe, which is placed within the writing space for minuscules, unusually low. The straight stroke has a wedge at the top and tapers to the left at the end. The descender is shorter than the ascender.
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe and an ascender which finishes with a curve to the left. It is distinguishable from p.
                                                                                        • y is dotted, and both strokes have round wedges at the top.
                                                                                        • ascenders are not very high, and some of them have a split-top wedge.
                                                                                        • descenders are not very long, and most of them finish with straight lines, but some curve to the left.
                                                                                        • accent on o.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The lobe of the þ of 'þæt' abbreviation is lower than the writing line, and the crossing bar curves upwards to the right. Macrons are also used; ƀ is often used too.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctus and punctus elevatus are used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: No ligature.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: There are no corrections.
                                                                                      • Hand: 10
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle with strong Carolingian influence
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Written in a narrowly-spaced, but broad, round English script of strongly Carolingian character. Copied Item 27.
                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is in Caroline form, and its lobe is an oval shape.
                                                                                        • The a component of æ is a round circle; and the e component, with a tongue to the right, is higher, the lobe is placed on the top of a.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back and its ascender sometimes tapers to the right. Caroline d is used in one name, 'Ode': it has a straight back and a wedge at the top.
                                                                                        • e has a round back and sometimes has a tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular and high in its position: the tongue sometimes crosses the vertical line above the writing line, the top bar is curved, and the descender is short and curves to the left.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is insular with a straight top, and the lower loop is open with an upward serif to the right. The vertical stroke goes down straight from the left of the horizontal stroke.
                                                                                        • The insular h has straight limbs with serifs to the right. The arch is angular, the highest point of the arch is above the right foot.
                                                                                        • The feet of the minims have upward serifs to the right, and the letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and a straight descender. Sometimes the foot has a upward serif to the right. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is insular, sometimes with the descender curving to the left at the end. The right foot has a serif to the right.
                                                                                        • Two kinds of s are used: the insular s with its descender curving to the left at the end; and Caroline s with a small head and a straight descender curving to the left on the writing line.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight head; the back-stroke joins the head somewhere between the middle and the left end.
                                                                                        • ð has a round back, and similar to d, but has a slightly taller ascender. The crossbar has an upward serif at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a small lobe, which is placed within the writing space for minuscules, unusually low. The straight stroke has a wedge at the top and tapers to the left at the end. The descender is shorter than the ascender.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a triangular lobe, and its descender curves to the left and tapers.
                                                                                        • The scribe also uses Caroline w both as a capital letter and a minuscule. The first stroke of v is curving to the left; the second stroke of v has an upper pointing serif.
                                                                                        • y is not used.
                                                                                        • ascenders are not very high. The wedges sometimes develop as thin horizontal lines.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders, and often curve to left and taper.
                                                                                        • accents on a and e.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The crossed þ, denoting 'þæt', has a lobe that is placed below the base line and a crossbar with a serif at right. The word 'priest' is abbreviated as .pˉ. . Macrons are wavy.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctus above the base line.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: st ligature: t has a straight back, and a horizontal stroke that crosses the vertical line.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: The letter s is very short and looks almost like a minuscule letter when added interlinearly.
                                                                                      • Hand: 11
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Neatly written in a broad and round hand. Copied Item 28.
                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • Insular a is round, and its top is narrower. A Caroline a is used for the initial letter of a name, 'Alpftaneus' together with a rustic capital letter.
                                                                                        • æ is mostly in insular; there is no high ea is sometimes in square shape, and e is sometimes open and without a top line. Caroline æhas a 'c'-shaped e.
                                                                                        • d is round and low with a very short ascender which is almost horizontal. The top of the ascender has an upward serif to the right.
                                                                                        • e is insular, with a straight back, horn to the left and tongue to the right. A few have rounder backs and a tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular, with its tongue on the writing line, and its ascender relatively short and curving slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • g is insular with a straight top; the loop almost closes in a round bowl, and the vertical stroke, which curves in a 'c' shape, mostly joins the horizontal bar somewhere between the middle and the left end. The lower loop is smaller than the upper loop.
                                                                                        • h is insular. The limb is round, but it is higher to the right, and the right foot curves inward first and finishes with a distinct serif to the right. The ascender is wedged.
                                                                                        • minims are irregular: some are curves and some are straight lines. They have distinct serifs to the right on their feet, and wedges at the top. Letters are distinguishable, as minims are connected at the top or the bottom where joined in a letter.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and a straight descender with a serif to both sides. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is insular. The right foot is shaped as a round arch with a serif to the right, and the ascender is short and curves to the left.
                                                                                        • Long s is used most frequently: the joint of the first and the second strokes is distinct; the descender is relatively short, and sometimes curves to left, and sometimes finishes with a straight line slightly below the writing line. The insular s is also used occasionally.
                                                                                        • Insular t has a round back with a straight top. The vertical stroke sometimes crosses the horizontal bar.
                                                                                        • ð has a curved ascender from the upper left to lower right, with the top slightly curved to the right or with a distinct serif to the left. The crossbar has an upward hook at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has an elongated or round lobe which is placed on the writing line. The ascender is short and wedged, the descender is shorter and curves slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • ƿ is with an elongated lobe and an ascender which finishes with a curve to the left.
                                                                                        • y is dotted. The left foot is thicker than the right one, and wedged. The right foot is thin, but has a distinct serif at the top.
                                                                                        • ascenders are short, and some letters have distinctive wedges, which split (for example, þlk and h).
                                                                                        • descenders are relatively short, and often curve to the left.
                                                                                        • accents on vowels, aou.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: es abbreviation, þætmacrons and tironian marks are used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctuation is by punctus.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: No ligatures.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: The additions in the margin 'h' and 'sun' were by a later hand. The letter s is very short and looks almost like a majuscule letter when added interlinearly.
                                                                                      • Hand: 12
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle with Carolingian influence
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Written in a very careful English hand of strongly Carolingian character. Ample space between lines, though the letters are narrow. Copied Item 29.
                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is Caroline, the lobe is triangular, and the left end of the head extends to the centre of the lobe.
                                                                                        • The a component of æ is insular with a round lobe, and e is slightly higher than a and sometimes has a tongue. The back of these letters starts from top-left and ends bottom-right.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back with an ascender, whose top sometimes tapers to the right.
                                                                                        • The shape of e varies: sometimes it has insular characteristics, and sometimes Caroline. Some have a straight back, a horn and a tongue; some have a round back, a horn and a tongue; some have a round back with a tongue, and some have a round back without a tongue or a horn.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular. Its tongue is on the writing line, and it does not have serifs nor tapers. The descender sometimes tapers slightly to the left, sometimes has a small upward serif to the right, and sometimes is straight. Caroline f is also used. The Caroline f has a distinct tongue and the descender tapers to the left.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is insular with a straight head, the lower loop is open and finishes further left than the left end of the head. The vertical stroke goes down straight from the left end of the head. The lower part is slightly larger than the upper part.
                                                                                        • h is insular: the limb is round, but it is higher to the right, and the right foot curves finishes with an upward serif to the right. The left foot mostly finishes with an upward serif to the right too, but sometimes tapers to left and sometimes finishes with a straight line. The top of the ascender is wedged, and occasionally splits slightly.
                                                                                        • minims are mostly straight lines with small serifs at their feet, but sometime they curve inward to shape letters. The length of minims is sometimes slightly irregular. Letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and its feet has a serif to the left. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is insular and the right foot is straight. The descender sometimes curves to the left and sometimes is straight.
                                                                                        • The long s is relatively short. The descender tapers to the left, and the joint of two strokes looks like a horn to the left.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back, and the vertical stroke meets the horizontal line in the middle. t occasionally has a wavy horizontal line and a straight back at 45º with the final straight stroke on the writing line.
                                                                                        • There is no ð.
                                                                                        • The lobe of þ sits on the writing line, and its descender curves slightly to the left at the end.
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe and a descender which finishes with a curve to the left.
                                                                                        • y is dotted, and the right foot has an upward serif to the left.
                                                                                        • ascenders are not very long, wedged, and the top is sometimes split.
                                                                                        • the length of descenders is irregular, some taper to the left and some are straight.
                                                                                        • accents on a and e.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The crossed þ signifying 'þæt' is placed low, i.e. half of the lobe is placed under the writing line. macrons have upward serifs at both ends.  with a 's'-shaped abbreviation. Tironian marks.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: No ligature is used.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: 'hig' is added in the left margin.
                                                                                      • Hand: 13
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle with some Caroline influence
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Written in pale ink. Space between lines is narrow, but the letters are not small in size. Copied Item 30.
                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is Caroline. Its lobe is triangular. The head is not very developed: sometimes there is no head at all; at the most it is a small tongue to the left;
                                                                                        • The a component of æ is insular with a round lobe; the e component has a very small round lobe and sometimes has a tongue. The back of both letters is slanted from top left to right bottom.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back with an ascender whose top sometimes tapers to the right.
                                                                                        • e is mostly insular, with a horn to the left and the tongue to the right, but the back of the letter is slightly curved. Sometimes the letter is Caroline with a round back and a tongue.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular, with its tongue slightly above the writing line, and its foot is straight or curves slightly to left.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is insular with a straight top and an open lower loop. The vertical stroke goes down straight from the left end of the horizontal stroke. The upper loop is approximately the same size as the lower loop.
                                                                                        • h is mostly insular, and both limbs are straight and finish with upward serifs to the right. The right limb consists of the highest point of the arch.
                                                                                        • The length of minims is sometimes irregular. Most of them have an upward serif to the right. Letters are distinguishable, as minims are connected either at the top or the bottom to shape letters.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and its foot has a serif to the left. It is distinguishable from ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is insular, with its descender sometimes curving slightly to the left at the end, and the right foot consists of the highest point of the arch.
                                                                                        • s is in insular form, with its ascender sometimes curving slightly to the left at the end. The top of the arch is sometimes open, and the second stroke looks like a dot. Short s is also used, with its foot finishing on the writing line.
                                                                                        • Insular t has a straight top and a round back, the vertical stroke meets the horizontal bar towards the left end. The left end of the horizontal bar is sometimes wavy.
                                                                                        • ð has a similar shape to d, with a round back and its ascender sometimes tapering to the right. Its crossbar has an upward serif at the right end.
                                                                                        • þ has a small lobe which is placed within the writing space for minuscules. The straight stroke has a wedge at the top and tapers to the left at the end. The descender is shorter than the ascender.
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe and a descender with a gentle curve to the left.
                                                                                        • y is dotted, its descender is short and both limbs have stopping serifs to the left on the top.
                                                                                        • Majuscule H is Caroline with a straight left limb, and the right limb that curves and turns to the left at the end.
                                                                                        • The ascenders of bþl and h have wedges, and some are split slightly.
                                                                                        • descenders are short, and some taper to the left.
                                                                                        • accents are on oua.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The crossbar of þ signifying 'thæt' has an upward serif to the right. ƀ˥ and macrons are also used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctuspunctus elevatushyphens at the end of the lines.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: No ligatures are used.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: There are scribal interlinear additions.
                                                                                      • Hand: 14
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Written in a very careful, regular and round English hand. The text is written on writing lines, and there is ample space between the lines. Copied Item 31.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is mostly in round insular form. Caroline a is sometimes used: it has a small lobe and a well developed and round head.
                                                                                        • The a component of æ is in round insular form, and e has a small, round head, sometimes with a tongue to the right. The back of both letters is a straight vertical line.
                                                                                        • d is round and low with a very short ascender which is almost horizontal.
                                                                                        • Insular e has a very small head, with a horn which creates an arch to the left and a tongue which is a straight line.
                                                                                        • There is no ę.
                                                                                        • f is insular: its straight tongue is on the writing line, and the arch of the head-stroke is well balanced, with its highest point at the middle. The descender finishes with a straight line.
                                                                                        • g is insular, the upper loop is in a 'c' shape, and the lower loop is closed. The upper loop meets the horizontal top line somewhere between the middle and the left end of the straight top. The lower part is smaller than the upper part.
                                                                                        • h has straight limbs, both with serifs which are short straight lines on the writing lines. The arch is round and the top of the arch is slightly to the right of the middle. The top of the ascender has a distinct split.
                                                                                        • minims are regular in length. The serif on the top is round and thick, whereas the serif at the bottom is a thin line to the right. Letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p is similar in shape to ƿ, but p has a round lobe, whereas ƿ has an elongated lobe. Both descenders are straight.
                                                                                        • r is narrow and insular, with its descender finishing with a straight line, and the top of the arch is on the right foot.
                                                                                        • sis in two forms: insular form with a round arch and a descender curving slightly to the left, and a long s with a round, smooth top and a descender which curves to the left.
                                                                                        • t is insular. The round back is almost straight towards the top, but curves round towards the bottom and the stroke finishes by curving upwards. It meets the straight top bar at the middle.
                                                                                        • ð has a round lobe, and a tall ascender which curves to the left, extends further, and curves slightly downwards at the end. The crossbar has an upward serif at the right.
                                                                                        • The lobe of þ is placed on the writing line, top of ascender is wedged and has a distinct split. The descender is shorter than the ascender, and curves slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe and the descender finishes with a straight line or curving slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • y is dotted. The second stroke, which has a stopping serif at the top and upward serif at the bottom, is thinner than the first.
                                                                                        • The height of ascenders is irregular, but they have a distinct split at the top most of the time.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders, and some of them slightly curve to the left. The length is irregular.
                                                                                        • No accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: Crossed þ for 'þæt'; ˥ƀ for ber.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: Punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: The be ligature is used.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: No corrections.
                                                                                      • Hand: 15
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Written in a small and very irregular hand. The three items (Item 35Item 36 and Item 37) were probably written by the same scribe. The only noticeable difference in terms of letter shape is found in e: Item 35 and 36 mostly use e in Caroline form, Item 37 in insular form.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is insular, the lobe is oval, and higher to its right. Caroline a is used for the abbreviated 'Amen' at the end of the text in all three cases.
                                                                                        • æ has an insular a and e with a tongue. e is slightly higher in some cases.
                                                                                        • d is insular, with a short ascender.
                                                                                        • e is Caroline form, round with a tongue to right. Insular e with a straight back, a horn and a tongue, often appears in Item 37.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular with a tongue slightly higher than the writing line. The shoulder is curled and sometimes curves back onto the stem.
                                                                                        • g is insular, with its top lobe 'c'-shaped and a lower loop closing in circle. The top lobe joins the top bar toward its left, and the sizes of upper part and lower part are approximately the same.
                                                                                        • h is insular, with both limbs serifed to the right. The right limb consists of the highest point of the arch. The ascender sometimes has a wedge with a small split.
                                                                                        • minims mostly have feet with serifs to the right but not always. Letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and finishes with a straight line. Similar to ƿ.
                                                                                        • r is insular with descender usually.
                                                                                        • s is in two forms: the insular form with a straight descender and a long s, whose descender extends below the writing line but is shorter than the descender of insular s.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back.
                                                                                        • The ascender of ð has a distinct and downwards serif to the left, and the lobe is small and round. The crossbar has a dot-like serif to its right.
                                                                                        • þ has an elongated lobe on the writing line; the ascender sometimes has a downwards serif to the left at the top.
                                                                                        • ƿ is similar to p, but usually has more elongated lobe. The descender sometimes curves to the left.
                                                                                        • y is not used.
                                                                                        • ascenders are irregular in height and direction; some of them have a wedge with a split, and some have a downwards serif to the left.
                                                                                        • descenders are straight. They are irregular in length, occasionally curving slightly to the left;
                                                                                        • No accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The crossbar of þ for 'þæt' is wavy, and it goes up towards the right. macrons are in vertical zigzag shape in Items 35 and 36, but simpler line in Item 37. see examples of 'amen'. ˥ is used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: There are no ligatures.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: Item 36 has some interlinear additions.
                                                                                      • Hand: 16
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule with some Caroline influence
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Narrow and irregular English hand. The space between lines is very small. Copied Item 38.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6r showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is sometimes insular, sometimes Caroline. The insular a has a pointed top. The head of Caroline a is not very developed, and does not extend beyond the lobe.
                                                                                        • The a component of æ is insular with a round lobe, and the ecomponent sometimes has a tongue, and is usually slightly higher than the a. The back of both letters is slanted from top left to right bottom.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back with an ascender whose top sometimes tapers to the right.
                                                                                        • e is sometimes insular form with a straight back, a downwards serif to the left and a tongue, although some have a rounder back. Caroline e with a round back is also used.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular form with its tongue on the writing line.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is insular with a straight top; the lower loop is open. The vertical stroke goes down straight from the left end of the horizontal stroke. The upper and lower parts are approximately the same size.
                                                                                        • h is insular; the right limb consists of the highest point; and both limbs have small upwards serifs to the right.
                                                                                        • minims are irregular in length, and u often consists of two minims which curve slightly outward. They have small upward serifs to the right, and the letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • The lobe of p is placed on the writing line. The lobe is pointy at the top and round at the bottom, and the descender finishes with a straight line.
                                                                                        • r is mostly insular, with its descender tapering slightly to the left. Occasional Caroline r with its foot extending slightly below the writing line.
                                                                                        • Long s, with a small head and descender tapering to the left.
                                                                                        • Insular t with a round back. The vertical line joins the horizontal line somewhere between the middle and the left end. tt share the same horizontal line;
                                                                                        • ð has a small oval lobe, and the crossbar has a downward dot-like serif at the left;
                                                                                        • þ is similar in shape to ƿ: its descender tapers slightly to the left, and the lobe is elongated and meets the descender below the writing line. The ascender sometimes has a dot-like serif to the left at the top.
                                                                                        • The descender of ƿ tapers slightly to the left. The lobe is elongated and meets the descender below the writing line.
                                                                                        • y is dotted. The second stroke is a thin line, apart from the dot-like serif to the left.
                                                                                        • ascenders are irregular in height and the shape of serifs: some are wedged; some are wedged with a small split; some have a dot-like serif to the left. They are not very high.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders; some finish with a straight line, some taper to the left.
                                                                                        • accents on e and a.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The angle of ˥ varies. The crossbar of þ for 'þæt' has an upward serif at the right end. macrons are caved in at the middle. with a zigzag macron is used for 'pence'.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: One interlinear addition with a caret mark which is shaped as a virgule.
                                                                                      • Hand: 17
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Round, spacious and slightly irregular English hand. Copied Item 39.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6v showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is round and slightly oval insular form; the highest point of the arch is towards the right.
                                                                                        • æ consists of an insular a and a round and slightly higher e with a small head and a tongue. The back is straight.
                                                                                        • d has a round lobe and round back. The ascender goes up to the left at an angle of 45º, and usually extends further than the left end of the lobe.
                                                                                        • e is insular with a straight back, a horn which is a downward serif to the left, and a straight horizontal tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f insular, with its tongue on or slightly above the writing line; the descender sometimes finishes straight, sometimes tapers to the left.
                                                                                        • Insular g has a 'c'-shaped upper part which meets the top bar at the middle. The lower loop sometimes closes and sometimes is left open.
                                                                                        • The stem of h is straight and right limb curves slightly outwards. Both limbs have straight line serifs, but the one on the left is usually more defined. The top of the ascender sometimes has a serif pointing the lower left.
                                                                                        • minims have straight line serifs on their feet, and letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe, and its descender finishes with a straight line serif.
                                                                                        • r is insular, and its descender sometimes tapers to the left.
                                                                                        • Mostly long s, with its descender extending below the writing line, but much shorter than other descenders. It tapers slightly to the left. The insular s is also used, with its ascender tapering slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back. Its vertical line meets the horizontal bar in the middle, and the lobe finishes with an upward round stroke.
                                                                                        • ð has a round lobe, and its ascender goes up to the left at an angle of 45º, extending further than the left end of the lobe. The top of the ascender has a downward serif to the left. The crossbar has a small serif pointing upwards to the right end.
                                                                                        • þ has an oval lobe, whose top goes up to the right at approximately 25º, and is placed on the writing line. The ascender sometimes starts with a distinct downwards serif to the left, and the descender sometimes finishes by tapering slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe whose top goes up to the right at approximately 25º. Its descender is without a serif, and often tapers to the left.
                                                                                        • The only y is dotted, with the ascender curving sharply to the left.
                                                                                        • ascenders mostly have wedges, and sometimes a distinct thin straight line serif to the left, whose height is not regular.
                                                                                        • descenders mostly finish as straight lines, although some taper to the left. They are irregular in length.
                                                                                        • No accents are used.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The crossbar of þ for 'þæt' has an upward serif.  is used for for 'penny'; ƀ and ˥ are used.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: There are no ligatures.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: There are no corrections.
                                                                                      • Hand: 18
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscle
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: Narrowly-spaced, round English hand. Copied Item 40.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6v showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is round and slightly oval insular form, the highest point of the arch is towards the right.
                                                                                        • æ consists of an insular a and e with a tongue. The e is the same height as a, and finishes by creating a sharp angle to the upper right rather than a round shape. The back is straight.
                                                                                        • d is insular, with a short ascender that sometimes has a tick serif to the upper right.
                                                                                        • e is insular form with a horn to the left in shape of a club serif, and a straight tongue to the right. The stem and the final upward curve are in two separate strokes: the letter often finishes by creating a sharp angle to the upper right rather than a round shape.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular, with its tongue on writing line, and the descender mostly finishing straight or curving slightly towards the left.
                                                                                        • The top of insular g is in a shallow 'c'-shape and meets the top bar in the middle, and the lower loop is closed and slightly triangular but rounded. The sizes of the upper and lower parts are approximately the same.
                                                                                        • The right stem of insular h is either straight or curves slightly outwards. The serif on the left foot is a straight line to both ends; the ascender is wedged and sometimes with a split. The serif on the right foot is a straight line to the right.
                                                                                        • minims have straight line serifs on their feet, sometimes horizontal, sometimes upright. They mostly start with entry serifs, and letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe, and the descender finishes with a straight line serif.
                                                                                        • r is insular with its descender either finishing straight or curving very slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • Long s, with a round top, and its descender extending below the writing line but much shorter than other descenders. The insular smostly finishes with a straight line.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back. Its vertical line meets the horizontal bar in the middle, and the lobe finishes with upward round stroke.
                                                                                        • The slant of the ascender of ð is about 15º, and the ascender has a long, thin serif to the left. Its crossbar does not go through the ascender and has an upward serif at the left end.
                                                                                        • þ has a round lobe which is on the writing line. The ascender is wedged with a split top, and the descender finishes with a straight line. The ascender is longer than the descender.
                                                                                        • ƿ has an elongated lobe whose top goes up to the right at approximately 25º. The lobe meets the stem below the writing line. The descender is without a serif, and sometimes curves slightly to the left and tapers.
                                                                                        • y is dotted. The second stroke has a distinct serif on the top, and sometimes a straight line serif at the end.
                                                                                        • The height of ascenders is not always regular. Many are wedged with a split top. The shape of the top of ascenders is not regular.
                                                                                        • descenders mostly finish with straight lines without serifs.
                                                                                        • There are no accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The crossbar of þ for 'þæt' has an upward serif at the right. Macrons are straight horizontal or wavy lines. Both the top bar and descender of ˥ are often straight lines.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: There are no ligatures.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: Interlinear additions.
                                                                                      • Hand: 19
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 13
                                                                                        • Description: A small Norman charter hand, but with some insular forms. Copied Item 41.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6v showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is insular with a triangular lobe. Its back-stroke extends below the writing line and turns upward at the end distinctly.
                                                                                        • There is only one æ that consists of a slanting stroke from top left to bottom right with a distinct serif at the top, and e with a relatively round back.
                                                                                        • Two kinds of d are used: insular d with a round lobe, a round back and a short ascender, and Caroline d with a square lobe, a straight back and a wedged ascender.
                                                                                        • e has a distinct horn, and a straight horizontal tongue to the right. Mostly it has a straight back, but sometimes slants slightly from top left to bottom right. It sometimes has a very pointed head with its top towards the right.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f in insular form with a short descender which finishes in a straight line.
                                                                                        • Insular g: the vertical line is straight or a very shallow 'c'-letter curve, and it meets the horizontal top bar in the middle. The bottom part is mostly open, but sometimes closed. The bottom part is slightly larger than the top part.
                                                                                        • h is insular. The ascender has a wedge at the top and an upward serif to the right. The highest point of the arch is above the right limb with an upward serif to the right. Both serifs are distinct.
                                                                                        • minims are irregular in length. Their foot has an exit serif that turns up to the right. The letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a square lobe of which right side is taller than the left side. The stem has an upward serif to the right, and the descender is slightly slanting from top left to bottom right.
                                                                                        • r is insular. The stem has a distinct upward serif, and the ascender finishes in a straight line.
                                                                                        • Long s, with a descender which extends below the writing line and finishes as a straight line shorter than other descenders.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back. Its vertical line meets the horizontal bar in the middle, and the lobe finishes with upward round stroke.
                                                                                        • ð has a round lobe, and its ascender has a distinct downward left serif. The crossbar does not cross the ascender, and has an upward entry serif.
                                                                                        • The ascender of þ has a defined straight line serif which slants from top right to bottom left. The stem slants slightly from top left to bottom right and curves to the left at the very end. The lobe is square, with the right side which is taller than the left side.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a triangular lobe, with a pointed corner at the top right. The stem has an upward serif to the right, and the descender is slightly slanted from top left to bottom right, slightly curved back to the left at the end and tapering.
                                                                                        • y is dotted, both strokes start with serifs, which slant from up right to down left. The descender is short;
                                                                                        • ascenders often have defined straight line serifs which slant from top right to bottom left. Sometimes they are wedged, sometimes wedged and split. The stem slants slightly from top left to bottom right. The strokes are sometimes slightly wavy. Their height is not regular.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders, and slant slightly from top left to bottom right. Sometimes they curve to the left at the end. Their length is not regular.
                                                                                        • There are no accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The cross-stroke of þ for 'þæt' does not cross the ascender, and has an entry upward serif at the right end. Macrons are cup-shaped.  is used for 'preost'. The descender of ˥ curves to the left.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: punctus.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: ct and st ligatures, t with a straighter back and upward straight stroke to the right to finish the letter, rather than a round shape.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: Interlinear addition of a letter.
                                                                                      • Hand: 20
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule with some Caroline influence.
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 14
                                                                                        • Description: A narrowly-spaced English hand. Copied Item 42.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6v showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • The lobe of insular a is triangular with the highest point to the right. The Caroline a has a large triangular lobe and a short head which slants from top right to bottom left.
                                                                                        • There is no æ.
                                                                                        • Insular d has a round back with a short ascender.
                                                                                        • The shape of e varies: sometimes it has insular characteristics, and sometimes Caroline characteristics. Some have a round back with a tongue; some have both a horn and a tongue; and some have a straighter (but not completely straight) back with a horn and a tongue.
                                                                                        • There is no ę.
                                                                                        • f is insular, with a tongue on or slightly above the writing line, and a descender finishing in a straight line.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped insular g: its vertical line meets the horizontal bar at its middle. The bottom loop is left open, and is bigger than the upper part. The bottom loop often starts above the writing line.
                                                                                        • h is Caroline, its stem is wedged at the top and has an upward serif to the right, and its limb is round and finishes with a round inward curve.
                                                                                        • minims have entry and exit serifs, are irregular in their length and not always entirely straight: u, for example, curves slightly outwards. Letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a stem with a wedged top and a straight end, and its lobe is round.
                                                                                        • Three kinds of r are used: insular r with a straight descender, and a straight right foot with an upward serif to the right; '2'-shaped r with arch-shaped top and bottom horizontal lines; and a Caroline r, whose foot has an upward right serif to the right.
                                                                                        • s is in three forms: insular form with a straight descender; a long swith its descender going below the writing line but shorter than other descenders; and superscript s, used to save space.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back. The vertical stroke meets the horizontal bar somewhere between the middle and the left end.
                                                                                        • ð is similar in shape to d. Its crossbar has a downward serif at the right.
                                                                                        • þ has a stem with a wedged top and finishes with a curve tapering to the left. The lobe is triangular and is placed on the writing line.
                                                                                        • The stem of ƿ has a wedged top, which curves to the left and tapers at the end. Its lobe is elongated, with its right top the highest and pointed.
                                                                                        • There is no y.
                                                                                        • ascenders are sometimes wedged and sometimes have a deep split at the top. They are upright and not very high.
                                                                                        • descenders usually finish straight, and are not very long.
                                                                                        • There are accents on a.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: macrons are curved downwards.  is used for 'preost'. The top bar of ˥ is wavy and curved downwards.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: st ligature has the t with a straighter back.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: There were probably additions in the right margin, but these are now faded out and not very clear.
                                                                                      • Hand: 21
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 14
                                                                                        • Description: An irregular hand with a forward slope and pointed shafts. Copied Item 43.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6v showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is insular with a triangular lobe. The back of the letter slants from top left to bottom right, and the fattest point of the lobe is on the writing line.
                                                                                        • There is no æ.
                                                                                        • d is Caroline, with a straight back and entry and exit serifs. The shape of the lobe is sometimes round, sometimes triangular.
                                                                                        • e is Caroline and round, sloping to the right and with a tongue.
                                                                                        • f is in two forms: the insular f has a back which curves from top right to bottom left with an entry serif and tapering at the end, and whose top stroke goes from bottom left to top right and has a downward tick serif at the end. The Caroline f slopes to the right, the foot finishing on the writing line, sometimes with a straight line serif. The crossbar is distinct.
                                                                                        • Caroline g has a round lobe on the top which has a horizontal tongue from the upper-right. A short slanting line starts from the middle of the lobe and goes down left, and then creates a round loop at the bottom. The loop is open and finishes with a downward serif.
                                                                                        • There is no h.
                                                                                        • minims slope to the right, and often have entry and exit serifs. Letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • There is no p.
                                                                                        • r sometimes has insular characteristics, and sometimes those of Caroline form. Particularly the shape of the final stroke of the letter greatly varies. Sometimes r is insular but with a much shorter stem: the arch is pointed and finishes with a tick serif to the right. There is also an r with a head which goes up and creates a sharp point, and then down to the right. The final stroke after a sharp point seems to have been emphasised in some forms of r: there is an r with a horizontal line to the right which finishes with a forked end, and also an r with only a forked stroke.
                                                                                        • s is in three forms: insular s has a straight stem and the top has a downward serif at the right, both of them sloping to the right; short swith a foot stopping on the writing line, similar in shape to f; and unicial s, placed lower at the end of a word.
                                                                                        • t is insular with a round back. Its vertical line meets the horizontal bar in the middle, and the lobe finishes with an upward round stroke.
                                                                                        • ð has a triangular lobe with rounded corners, and its ascender sometimes curves slightly to the right. The crossbar does not cross the ascender, and sometimes has a downward serif at the right end.
                                                                                        • The ascender of þ slopes to the right, and curves further to the left and tapers at the end. The lobe is small and oval.
                                                                                        • The stem of ƿ slopes to the right, and an elongated lobe.
                                                                                        • w, which consists of two v is also used.
                                                                                        • y is not used.
                                                                                        • ascenders slope to the right, and some have an entry serif; others start without serifs.
                                                                                        • descenders are relatively short and the length is irregular. They slope to the right.
                                                                                        • There are no accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: þ with a cross-stroke is used for 'þæt'. ˥ has its top bar curving in.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: No punctuation.
                                                                                        • Ligatures: No ligatures.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: Interlinear additions.
                                                                                      • Hand: 22
                                                                                        • Scope: Major
                                                                                        • Script: English Vernacular Minuscule
                                                                                        • Ker reference: Ker, item 20, article 14
                                                                                        • Description: The general aspect is round, but it is irregular and clumsy hand. Copied Item 44Item 45 and Item 46.

                                                                                          Display Exeter fol. 6v showing this hand.

                                                                                        • Summary of the characteristics of the hand:
                                                                                        • a is insular, mostly round, but the circle is sometimes not smooth.
                                                                                        • æ consists of insular round a and Caroline e, whose back slopes slightly from top left to bottom right.
                                                                                        • d is insular. Its ascender sometimes curves slightly to the right. The lobe is mostly round, but sometimes triangular.
                                                                                        • e is Caroline, round, with a tongue to the right.
                                                                                        • ę is not used.
                                                                                        • f is insular. The stem starts with a distinct club serif and ends straight and relatively short. The tongue is either on the writing line or slightly below, and the top line is either straight or slightly arched and ends with a downward serif to the left.
                                                                                        • '5'-shaped g is in insular form with a straight top; the upper loop has a round and smooth curve, and the lower loop is left open. The vertical stroke goes down straight from the left end of the horizontal stroke. The lower loop is slightly larger than the upper loop.
                                                                                        • h is insular the stem sometimes has a wedged top, and always finishes with an upward line serif to the right. The limb sometimes go down straight and sometimes curves inwards, but always finishes with an upward line serif to the right.
                                                                                        • minims are irregular in length and sloping direction. They usually have an upward serif to the right at the foot, but not always. Letters are distinguishable.
                                                                                        • p has a round lobe and straight descender.
                                                                                        • r is insular; the descender starts with a club serif and finishes as a straight line.
                                                                                        • Long s, with its descender extending below the writing line but not very far, sometimes finishing curving slightly to the left. The top is sometimes round, sometimes square.
                                                                                        • t has a round back with a straight head, and the back stroke joins the head in the middle. Sometimes the beginning of the back stroke is visible above the head.
                                                                                        • ð is similar in shape to d, with a crossbar. The crossbar has an upward serif at the right.
                                                                                        • The ascender of þ is longer than its descender. The ascender is wedged and has a split top, the ascender finishes curving slightly to the left and tapers. The lobe is elongated and triangular.
                                                                                        • ƿ has a straight descender which curves slightly to the left at the end, and an elongated triangular lobe.
                                                                                        • y is not used.
                                                                                        • ascenders are irregular in height and sloping direction, but often wedged, and also split at the top.
                                                                                        • descenders are shorter than ascenders, and mostly finish as a straight line without a serif, and sometimes curve slightly to the left.
                                                                                        • There are no accents.
                                                                                        • Abbreviations: The macron is a line, which sometimes curves in. ƀ is used. ˥ is in the '7' shape.
                                                                                        • Punctuation: The punctus is used.
                                                                                        • Correcting technique: Interlinear additions, and additions in the right margin.
                                                                                      Decoration Description

                                                                                      The four gospel books all start with a blue large initial letter, and are subdivided into smaller sections. The colours of the decorative initial letters which indicate beginnings of sections then alternate in a very regular pattern: Blue-Red, Green-Red, Blue-Red, Green-Red with only a few exceptions such as: fols 13r-13v: Red-Red; fols 19r-20r: Blue-Red-Blue; fols 53r-54r: Green-Red-Green. The red ink is often metallic.

                                                                                      Some of the letters in red have turned into metallic silver, probably due to oxidisation.

                                                                                      Chapters are usually preceded by a heading and rubric in the same hand and script of the texts. The heading, rubric and the decorative letters were probably added to the text later. For example, at fol. 12r/11 or fol. 31v/7, the English heading did not fit within the space before the section division, and thus part of the final word was written in the right margin. There are also places where white space was left before the new chapter, but neither the English heading nor the Latin Incipit was added: for example fols 32r, 34r, 61v, 66r, 94v, 95v, 121v, 122v, and so forth.

                                                                                      The scribe sometimes wrote the English rubric at the chapter divisions in two lines towards the right, so that the rubric fits nicely. For example, CUL fol. 86v/8-11 (Luke, 1:39):

                                                                                      dryhtnes þynen. ge ƿeorðe me æfter þinum ƿorde. ˥ se | 

                                                                                      engel hyre fram geƿat ·Ðis gebyrað on frigedæg to | 

                                                                                      Exsurgens autem maria · to þam ylcan fæstene | 

                                                                                      Soðlice onþam dagum aras maria ˥ ferde on munt land | 

                                                                                      myd ofste.
                                                                                      • The previous section finishes with 'hyre fram geƿat ·', the new section starts with 'Soðlice onþam', and one and a half lines of space were left for the direction in English and the Latin Incipit. The scribe wrote the rubric in English towards the right, and started the new line with the Latin Incipit, 'Exsurgens autem maria ·'. Similar examples can be seen on fols 97r and 99v.

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Gospel of Nicodemus (fol. 173v) and Vindicta Salvatoris (fol. 193r) begin with a large green initial letter, and they do not have subdivisions.

                                                                                        The scribe tried to avoid a widow at page divisions and chapter divisions. For example, at fol. 121r/3-5 (Luke 19:29):

                                                                                        hierusalemÐys gebyrað feoƿer ƿucon ær middan | 

                                                                                        ƿyntra ˥ on palm sunnan dæg. 「 bethfagie. | 

                                                                                        Cum adppopinquasset iɧs hierosolimis et uenisset | 

                                                                                        þa he ge nealæhte bethfage ˥ bebethania to þam | 
                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                        The Latin Incipit has one word 'bethfagie', which did not fit in line 5, and so was inserted at the end of line 4. The upper and left sides of the word 'bethfagie' are enclosed with lines which mark that the word belongs to the next line.

                                                                                        CUL fol. 191v/22-23 amˉ [some space] Dyr [starting normally]

                                                                                        CUL fol. 58v/23, Mark 3:22: The initial capital letter of 'Soðlice', 'S' is missing.

                                                                                      Additions

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Additions probably under Matthew Parker:

                                                                                        • In the marginalia Exeter fol. 7v/ 8-17 left margin, three names, Edƿine, Godric, Aifric in the lists were copied in the left margin.
                                                                                        • There are pictures of a face, and a man with a staff (CUL fol. 114v/margin). They are in very pale brown lines.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 173v-margin: modern hand
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 178r: some pencil writings by somebody who did the collation and wrote sig numbers.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 193r/chapter division: Addition in green.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 2r, head margin 'Matthæus Canfuar 1574' in modern hand.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 2r, bottom margin 'Continet pag. 401 modern hand'
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 2r: green; fol. 55r: yellow; CUL fol. 85r: green; fol. 133r: pink; fol. 173r: yellow, fol. 193r: green ribbons.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 104v, a few words are underlined by Parker's red crayon.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 119r, a few corrections in Parker's crayon.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 170r-v, stitched with green thread and taped.
                                                                                        • CUL fol. 173v, additions in margins possibly by Parker.
                                                                                      Binding Description

                                                                                      The current binding is dark brown leather, rebound in 1940 at Cambridge University Library (the date is given on the pastedown of the upper cover of the current binding). Flyleaves fols i, ii, and 213 and 214 were added then. On the spine of the book, the title QVATVOR EVANGELIAand the manuscript number 'Ii. 2. 11' are given in gold.

                                                                                      The previous binding, an elaborately tooled one made for Archbishop Parker in 1566, is now kept separately. The leather is light brown, stamped in gold. The binding boards have the remains of two clasps, and the outer corners are covered with strips of metal. The board of the binding is about 6 mm thick, 224 mm x 334 mm. The horn label on the lower cover is inscribed Evangelia 4or saxon., and the hand of this inscription is the same as the hand of inscription on the horn label of Ii. 2.11. The pastedown and the flyleaf of the upper cover were removed from the cover, and are now bound with the rest of the book as fols ix and x. They are from the sixteenth-century accounts: a vellum (fols ixr-xv) and a paper (fols ixv-xr) are pasted together.

                                                                                      The flyleaf of the lower cover of the previous binding is now kept with the old binding. The pastedown of the lower cover is still attached to the cover.

                                                                                      The seal of the Cambridge University Library is attached on fol. 1r.

                                                                                      When the five leaves from the preliminary quire and three leaves from Quire 27 were cut and bound at the beginning of the Exeter Book before the sixteenth century, some of the leaves were fastened together with strips of a fifteenth-century account-roll (See Exeter Book, pp. 93-94). Three sets of leaves fastened together were:

                                                                                       

                                                                                      Whoever fastened these leaves together probably did not know anything about the original make-up of the CUL Ii. 2. 11. The current Exeter fol. 1 contains Item 3. Part of the two-line high decorative letter has been hidden under the split of parchment. A later hand re-drew the letter 'H' in black ink.

                                                                                      These three strips of vellum have now been removed from these leaves, and bound separately in the Exeter Book.

                                                                                       
                                                                                        • Exeter now fols 6 and 7 (originally Quire 27, fol. 5 and Preliminary Quire, fol. 1)
                                                                                        • Exeter now fols 0 and 5 (originally Preliminary Quire, fol. 5 and Quire 27, fol. 3)
                                                                                        • Exeter now fols 1 and 4 (originally Preliminary Quire, fol. 2 and Quire 27, fol. 4)

                                                                                      The lower cover, the end flyleaf and a strip of parchment from the upper cover of the previous binding are now kept separately with the manuscript.


                                                                                      Additional Information

                                                                                      Administration Information

                                                                                      Manuscript described by Takako Kato with the assistance of Hollie Morgan and Owen Roberson (2010; 2013).

                                                                                      Surrogates

                                                                                      EM Project facsimile, CUL Ii. 2. 11 and Exeter, Cathedral Library 3501

                                                                                      Förster, Max, R. W. Chambers, and Robin Flower, eds, The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933)

                                                                                      A black and white microfilm is available in CUL

                                                                                      Muir, Bernard J., ed., The Exeter Anthology of Old English Poetry: The Exeter DVD (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2006), digital facsimile of the Exeter Book

                                                                                       

                                                                                        Robinson, Pamela R., Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 737-1600 in Cambridge Libraries, 2 vols (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1988), pl. 22


                                                                                        History

                                                                                        Origin

                                                                                        The Four GospelsGospel of Nicodemus and Vindicta Salvatoris are written by a 'a handsome regular hand of Exeter type' (Ker 1957, p. 31). One of the books that were produced under a 'copying programme' for Bishop Leofric in Exeter (Treharne 2003, p. 157). The preliminary quire and the blank pages of the final quire were filled with legal documents, mostly from the South-West of England, i.e., ExeterBodmin and Bath(Förster 1933, 'The Preliminary Matter', p. 45), mostly in s. xii1, and in Exeter.

                                                                                        Provenance

                                                                                        Given to Exeter by Bishop Leofric (d. 1072), according to inscriptions on fol. 1 (Item 3), and identifiable with 'þeos englisce cristes boc' in the list of Leofric's gifts (Förster 1933, 'The Donations of Leofric', p. 26). The five leaves from the beginning and the three leaves from the end of the manuscript which are now bound in the Exeter Book were seen there by Joscelyn in the sixteenth century (Exeter Book 1933, p. 91). The rest was given to Archbishop Parker in 1566 by Gregory Dodde, dean of Exeter, 'cum assensu fratrum suorum Canonicorum', according to a Latin inscription on the pastedown of the previous binding, now fol. ixv.

                                                                                        Acquisition

                                                                                        Number 2 in the list of manuscripts given to Cambridge University by Parker in 1574. Old Cambridge marks are 'D. β. 5' and '255' (Wanley 1705, pp. 152 and 279), as it says in the pastedown of the upper cover of the previous binding (now fol. 1v, left margin). In the pastedown of the lower cover of the previous binding, there is a shelfmark '4. 2. 5' in pencil, and some notes deleted and illegible.

                                                                                        Bibliography

                                                                                        A Catalogue of the Manuscripts Preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge, 5 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1856-57; München: Kraus Reprint, 1980)

                                                                                        Allen, Thomas Powers, 'A Critical Edition of the Old English Gospel of Nicodemus' (unpublished PhD thesis, Rice University, 1968)

                                                                                        Assmann, Bruno, ed., Angelsächsischen Homilien Und Heiligenleben, Bibliotek Der Angelsächsischen Prosa, 13 (Kassel, 1889)

                                                                                        Barlow, F., 'Leofric and His Times', in Leofric of Exeter: Essays in Commemoration of the Foundation of Exeter Cathedral Library in A.D. 1072 , ed. by Frank Barlow, and others (Exeter: University of Exeter, 1972), pp. 1-16

                                                                                        Bishop, T. A. M., 'Notes on Cambridge Manuscripts; Part III: MSS Connected with Exeter', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 2.2 (1955), 192-99

                                                                                        Bright, James Wilson ed., The Gospel of Saint Luke in West-Saxon: Euangelium Secundum Lucam (Boston, MA and London: Heath, 1906)

                                                                                        ---, The Gospel of Saint Mark in West-Saxon: Euangelium Secundum Marcum (Boston, MA and London: Heath, 1905)

                                                                                        ---, ed., The Gospel of Saint Matthew in West-Saxon (Boston, MA and London: Heath, 1904)

                                                                                        ---, ed., The Gospel of St John in West-Saxon: Euangelium Secundum Iohannem (Boston, MA and London: Heath, 1906)

                                                                                        Brown, G. Baldwin, The Arts in Early England, 7 vols (London: Murray, 1903-37)

                                                                                        Conner, Patrick W., Anglo-Saxon Exeter: A Tenth-Century Cultural History (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1993)

                                                                                        Corradini, Erika, 'Leofric of Exeter and His Lotharingian Connections: A Bishop's Books, C 1050-72' (unpublishded doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester, 2008)

                                                                                        Drage, E., 'Bishop Leofric and the Exeter Cathedral Chapter, 1050-1072: A Reassessment of the Manuscript Evidence' (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Oxford, 1978)

                                                                                        Earle, John, A Hand-Book to the Land-Charters and Other Saxonic Documents (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1888)

                                                                                        Förster, Max, 'The Donations of Leofric to Exeter', in The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933), pp. 10-32

                                                                                        ---, 'General Description of the Manuscript', in The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile, (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933), pp. 55-67

                                                                                        ---, 'The Preliminary Matter of the Exeter Book', in The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933), pp. 44-54

                                                                                        ---, R. W. Chambers, and Robin Flower, eds, The Exeter Book of Old English Poetry: Facsimile (London: for the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral by Humphries, 1933)

                                                                                        Fox, Cyril, and Bruce Dickins, eds, The Early Cultures of Noth-West Europe: H. M. Chadwick Memorial Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950)

                                                                                        Gameson, Richard, 'The Origin of the Exeter Book of Old English Poetry', Anglo-Saxon England, 25 (1996), 135-85

                                                                                        Gover, John Eric Bruce, A. Mawer, and F. M. Stenton, The Place-Names of Devon, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1931-32)

                                                                                        Hickes, George, Georgii Hickesii S.T.P. De Antiquæ Litteraturæ Septentrionalis Utilitate: Sive De Linguarum Veterum Septentrionalium Usu Dissertatio Epistolaris Ad Bartholomæum Showere (Oxford: e Theatro Sheldoniano, 1703)

                                                                                        Hill, Joyce, 'Leofric of Exeter and the Practical Politics of Book Collecting', in Imagining the Book, ed. by Stephen Kelly and John J. Thompson (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), pp. 77-97

                                                                                        Hulme, W. H., 'The Old English Version of the Gospel of Nicodemus (Edition)', PMLA, 13 (1898), 471-515

                                                                                        James, Montague Rhodes, Unpublished Description by M. R. James Kept in the Manuscript Department (Cambridge: Cambridge University Library)

                                                                                        Kato, Takako, 'Exeter Scribes in Cambridge University Library Ii.2.11 + Exeter Book fols 0, 1–7', New Medieval Literatures, 13 (2012 for 2011), 5-21

                                                                                        Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 20

                                                                                        Lenker, Ursula, 'The West Saxon Gospels and the Gospel Lectionary in Anglo-Saxon England: Manuscript Evidence and Liturgical Practice', Anglo-Saxon England, 28 (1999), 141-78

                                                                                        Liuzza, R. M., ed., The Old English Version of the Gospels: Notes and Glossary, EETS, OS 314 (London: Published for the Early English Text Society by the Oxford University Press, 2000)

                                                                                        Muir, Bernard J., ed., The Exeter Anthology of Old English Poetry: The Exeter DVD (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2006)

                                                                                        Oliver, George, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter and a History of the Cathedral Exeter (Exeter Roberts, 1861)

                                                                                        ---, Monasticon Diocesis Exoniensis: Being a Collection of Records and Instruments Illustrating the Ancient Conventual, Collegiate, and Eleemosynary Foundations, in the Conties of Cornwall and Devon, with Historical Notices, and a Supplement, Comprising a List of the Dedications of Churches in the Diocese, an Amended Edition of the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, and an Abstract of the Chantry Rolls (Exeter Hannaford, 1846)

                                                                                        Robertson, A. J, Anglo-Saxon Charters, 2nd edn (1939; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956)

                                                                                        Rose-Troup, Frances, 'Exeter Manumissions and Quittances of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries', Devonshire Association Transactions, 64 (1937), 417-45

                                                                                        Scragg, Donald G., A Conspectus of Scribal Hands Writing English, 960-1100 (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2012)

                                                                                        Skeat, Walter W., ed., The Gospel According to Saint John: In Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions, Synoptically Arranged, with Collations Exhibiting All the Readings of All the Mss (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1878)

                                                                                        ---, The Gospel According to Saint Luke: In Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions, Synoptically Arranged, with Collations Exhibiting All the Readings of All the Mss (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1874)

                                                                                        ---, The Gospel According to Saint Mark: In Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions, Synoptically Arranged, with Collations Exhibiting All the Readings of All the Mss (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1871)

                                                                                        ---, The Gospel According to Saint Matthew : In Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions : Synoptically Arranged, with Collations Exhibiting All the Readings of All the Mss, A new edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1887)

                                                                                        Thorpe, B., ed., The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Holy Gospels (London, 1842)

                                                                                        ---, Diplomatarium Anglicum Ævi Saxonici: A Collection of English Charters, from the Reign of King Æthelberht of Kent, A.D. Dc.V. To That of William the Conqueror, with a Translation of the Anglo-Saxon by Benjamin Thorpe (London: Macmillan, 1865)

                                                                                        Treharne, Elaine M., 'Bishops and their Texts in the Later Eleventh Century: Worcester and Exeter', in Essays in Manuscript Geography: Vernacular Manuscripts of the English West Midlands from the Conquest to the Sixteenth Century, ed. by Wendy Scase (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), pp. 13-28

                                                                                        ---, 'The Bishop’s Book: Leofric’s Homiliary and Eleventh-Century Exeter', in Early Medieval Studies in Memory of Patrick Wormald, ed. by Stephen Baxter, and others (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009), pp. 521-37

                                                                                        ---, 'Producing a Library in Late Anglo-Saxon England: Exeter, 1050-1072', Review of English Studies, 54 (2003), 155-72

                                                                                        Wanley, H., Librorum Veterum Septentrionalium Catalogus (1705)

                                                                                        Warner, Rubie D. N., ed., Early English Homilies from the Twelfth Century Ms. Vesp. D. Xiv, EETS, OS 152 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1917 for 1915)

                                                                                         

                                                                                          Warren, F. E., The Leofric Missal as used in the Cathedral of Exeter during the episcopate of its first bishop, A.D. 1050-1072. Together with some account of the Red book of Derby, the Missal of Robert of Jumièges, and a few other early manuscript service books of the English church(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1883)